Isolationism and Internationalism



American isolationism began when the leaders advocated for a total retreat from the foreign alliances. Conflicts and costly wars dominated the unions that America formed with other countries. Most of the American history show hesitant desire to withdraw from expensive wars with countries such as Japan, Spain, and China. The founders of the isolationist movement included Jefferson and Quincy. Consequently, the move to segregate from the initial alliances led to internationalism, which American leaders advocated for unity among nations despite of political and economic differences. FDR moves entailed an opposition of any proponents of war and any forms of racial discrimination. In fact, some critics praised the call for internationalization, as they explained its impact on world economy.

Factors that influencing American Internationalism

Military Strength

America chose to isolate itself from world problems, but the escalating wars in Europe and the tension in Japan caused the country to slowly edge into the global conflict. For example, the sudden attack of the Pearl Harbor and the increasing tension with Japan sparked the beginning of war (Green n.d). In fact, the United States threatened to cut its supply of oil and metals to Japan. Despite the stern warning, Japan quitted the League of Nations and joined China in support of its economic recession. Additionally, Japan joined with Nazi to take control over Italy with an aim of creating a new world order. Resultantly, United States financed China, and this scaled the initial conflict between the countries. For this reason, America sought to increase its military base.

Democratic Reasons

The American engagement influenced other nations towards liberalization. The move encouraged other countries to choose freedom and democracy. For example, Germany and Japan formed strong alliance that fostered peace and economic development. Apart from peace, the idea provided minority groups with equal justice and greater economic opportunities. Resultantly, other countries emulated the move and sought ideas from the American leaders on the strategies of establishing progress and justice. FDR supported the idea in the quest of promoting the growth of democratic space globally.

Peace and Economic Stability

American internationalism prospered through achievement of greater peace and stability under President John F Kennedy. Such environments enabled several countries to engage in business activities, developing stronger economic ties in the process (Green n.d). The ever-rising strength in the U.S global leadership enabled vibrant international co-relations in business and ensured closer economic ties with Asian countries. Through internationalism, America established crucial economic agreements with the International Monetary Fund’s organization for financing of major projects in friend-countries. Such relations led to creation of global economic order, leading to the betterment of many lives. Besides, some countries took advantage of international relations between the US and other states by engaging in unscrupulous trade deals. For instance, intellectual property theft and economic espionages undermine American efforts in integrating different policies from countries involved in business. Such challenges, therefore, call for an increased role of American leadership in realizing economic realm. Through this, America realizes good relationships with several countries, and therefore achieving internationalism.


Consequently, America engages in free trade pacts with countries across the globe. Such trade agreements allow exchange of processed goods between countries without major constraints. Free trade between countries ensures cheaper prices of commodities in the local markets and therefore improves inter-country relations. Trade agreements ensure that countries adopt similar policies that allow effective operations of business activities. Besides, the American global supply chain increases as many countries develop interest in engaging with favorable business environment.

Life/ Aging


While the gift of life is an important aspect for individuals, various components are wonderful and some may be challenging. Consequently, the occurrence of death represents an event which marks a person’s final rite of passage. When people think about life, the future and natural process of aging is the main factor of concern (Gurian, 2013). The reason for this is that aging brings about fear and anxiety since someone knows that he/she is nearing death. However, people look forward to the future since it presents an opportunity for them to achieve their desires such as a competitive career (Weisstub, Thomasma, Gauthier, & Tomossy, 2013). Although the natural process of life is accompanied by death, in the end, people are still hopeful for the best in the future.

The future and life as a whole excites when there is hope for a successful aging. I am looking forward to fulfilling my goals such as an excellent career in school. When someone is aspiring for something valuable in life, then life has a meaning, and an individual can enjoy living to the fullest (Liang & Luo, 2012). The desire to complete education successfully and fulfill my career choice motivates me since I will be assured of a good job. Individuals who have achieved their objectives in school and landed a role in their area of specialty find life enjoyable (Osteen, 2017). In that case, such individuals have enough money to make aging successful by maintaining a low risk of disease, high mental and physical functions, and an active engagement with life (Prenda & Lachman, 2001). For a person to practice such activities, there is a need for adequate finances to facilitate things such as balanced diet. I am looking forward to making aging successful by doing what excites me in life and avoiding situations that may lead to stress.


Humn 142 Essay 1


Module 2 Options
The Lake

The predominant theme in both “the lake” by Ray Bradbury and “The rocking-horse winner” by D.H Lawrence is family relations. Other sub-themes such as pain, wealth, greed, love, kinship and marriage emanate from this central idea. In the lake, the main protagonist visits his childhood home together with his wife Margret. At his hometown, Harold reminiscences the childhood memories, especially the loss of his lover at the tender age of twelve. After this somber event at the lake, Bradbury employs the stylistic device of flash forward to bring the audience to the present day. The importance of the childhood story to the development of the plot is to demonstrate Harold’s relationships with the close people in life. For instance, Harold repeatedly calls the name of Tally in the lake each time expecting an answer. There is no reply, and this style elicits empathy from the audience. The reader is further actively involved and feels closer to the narrator through the use of first person narration. As a reader, one feels connected to the lost child on the lake with wind and water blowing his friend away. Bradbury effectively uses imagery to enhance the continuity of the plot. For example, Harold admiration of Tally’s beauty is depicted by the statement “I thought of Tally, Swimming out into the water last May with her pigtails trailing, blond. She went laughing, and the sun was on her small twelve-year-old shoulders” (Bradbury 2). The unconditional emotions that the protagonist had for the young girl made her more of a family than a friend. The narrator further uses imagery to demonstrate the close relationship that Harold has with his mother from a young age. On the day that Tally drowned into the lake, the audience can visualize the affection that the mother and the son have for each other. For example, after the swim, his mother wraps in a warm towels, although he is a big boy approaching teenage hood. In such an instance, Bradbury intention is to illustrate mother’s interaction with their teenage boys influence their growth and development. It is a psychological fact that parents become scared when their children leave home for college or to being married. After the incidence, Harold took a train and joined the grammar school, the high school, and later college in a far town from his home. The purpose of this imagery is demonstrate how close family relations become severed by factors such as work and school. In fact, during this transition, there is no reference to the mother. The narrator states that “I had almost forgotten was east was like” (Bradbury 3). While at Sacramento, Harold met a young woman whom he wed at the tender age of twenty two. From the narrative, it is evident that this is the third important relationship involving the protagonist.

The honeymoon turned out to be tour down the memory for the protagonist. The trip back home was bad for their marriage. From Harold’s narrative, the audience begins to realize that his marriage to Margret was just out of convenience for companionship and loneliness. For instance, the protagonist describes Margret as “Handsome” in her new clothes (Bradbury 4). Handsome is a metaphor that is used symbolically to demonstrate that their love is non-erotic. While at the lake, Harold discovers that his true love was tally, and she was taken away. According to him, the woman waiting for him at the shore was strange. Irrefutably, Harold’s relationship with Margaret would not last given the realization that he does not love him. Family ties in the lake are represented through marriage, friendship, and birth. For Harold, Tally was his true family, and love for whom his emotions flows freely.

Module 3 Options

The Rocking-Horse Winner

Seemingly, the Rocking-Horse Winner by D.H. Lawrence demonstrates the convoluted dynamic of family relationship. As with lake, Paul’s father is unavailable or undiscussed throughout most of his life. Since both stories refers to the 1930’s, the absence of the fathers in the children life was common during that Era. Some factors that could have contributed to this phenomenon include work, war, and cultural systems of the communities (Lawrence 6). Regardless, the two narratives illustrate that women played a greater role in the development of their children than their male counterparts. The main protagonist in the rocking-horse winner is an ambitious woman, Hester. Hester is pretty woman by all standards and believes she deserves a better life than her current status. However, as a young woman with three children, her dream of attaining a luxurious lifestyle appears bleak. Therefore, Hester is forced to work multiple jobs in order to fulfil her financial desires. Lawrence presents the plight of the family by effective application of satire (Lawrence 8). The use of satire, irony, and metaphors creates comic relief, which makes the narrative interesting to the audience. Furthermore, the author intends to demonstrate how the quest for money can ruin family relations by promoting greed and immorality. The use of satire allows the audience to appreciate the importance of values and norms in fostering healthy familial relationship.

Sexual harassment: A Theoretical Analysis

Sexual harassment: A Theoretical Analysis

Summary of the Article

Castle’s Sexual Harassment Claims Surface in U.K. Parliament, highlights an event of sexual misconduct associated with different leaders including legislatures. From the beginning of the article, the author agrees with the fact that women frequently fall victims of unwelcomed advances at the work place. Besides, Castle posits that sexual harassment emanates across all institutions in the society including people in noble job positions (Castle n.d). The rampant reports of assault trigger heated debates and emotions that call for change. Despite the stringent laws associated with sexual harassment, more people still fall victims of the vice. In addition, Castle provides that the players in the entertainment industry use politics of harassment to fire successful people in the business.

Equally, the author worries that people in competitive jobs tend to fall victims of sexual harassment elements. For example, Crabb, a pension salary executive, apologized for portraying inappropriate behavior towards a 19-year old (Castle n.d). With the increasing trend of sexual harassment at the work place, Castle indicates that women law makers call for change in addressing the issue. The author grounds his perspective from the corridors of power. Ironically, legislators remain the main players in addressing issues concerning inappropriate behavior, but reports show that most of them propagate unacceptable sexual behavior.

From the article, Castle highlights the issue across all places of work. Therefore, this shows that the issue needs better solutions. Seemingly, the laws addressing unwelcomed sexual behavior fail to indicate the true meaning of its inappropriateness. Correspondingly, executives at the work place use their positions to harass lower level employees, especially women.


To explain the increasing rates of sexual harassment at the work place, Butler and Fraser provide interesting theories that enhance a better understanding of the social problem. Butler’s theory, Merely Cultural, borrows ideas from Marxist capitalist perspective. The theory provides that the capitalist perspective refrains from addressing real issues due to the oppression of the capitalist system (Butler 267). Butler argues that some of the problems at the work place happen due to a developed culture. According to the theory, Marxist opinion fails to address the impact of economic inequality. In addition, Butler argues that people in the society politicize issues instead of seeking solutions to the problem. As a result, the society fails to understand the gravity of the issue. In addition, Butler uses the orthodox of unity in her theory to explain that people’s culture impact the emergence of issues in the society. Correspondingly, the theory indicates that social movements develop due to lack of proper channels of addressing social vices. Butler argues that social movements in the contemporary society try to respond to issues related to sexuality.

In addition, Fraser’s clearly explains aspects of sexuality in her heterosexism, misrecognition, and capitalism. According to Fraser, identity politics show an increasing trend in the contemporary America (Fraser 279). She explains that social movements like feminism and anti-racial activists emanate due to an increase in social injustices in the society. Specifically, Fraser illustrates the struggles associated with the lesbian and gay communities. For this reason, Fraser’s theory bases its argument on culture and political economy. Like Butler, Fraser uses Marxists capitalisms to explain the use of power among the economic class to oppress others


What factors contribute to increasing trends in sexual harassment at the workplace?


Butler and Fraser’s theories help in understanding the case in Sexual Harassment Claims Surface in U.K. Parliament. From the article, it is crystal clear that the economic standards of the executive employees accord them with power. This power allows them to oppress the rest through sexual harassment.

Analysis of Evidence

From the article, one notes that leaders acts as the main players who support the increasing reports of sexual harassment at the work place. In fact, Caste indicates that prominent people steer a scaling trend in social problems related to sexuality. Due to shame and embarrassment associated with sexual assault, many lower level employees fail to report the cases. Another factor includes control of the factors of production, which allows people in top positions in organization to fire others for refusing their sexual advances. Resultantly, the problem upgrades to a culture that is normalized at the work place.


Sexual harassment shows an upward trend in the contemporary society. Despite of the laws governing this issue, the problem is far from over. Butler and Fraser borrow from the Marxist perspective to show the relationship between economic power and social problems. In relation with Castle’s article, the theories confirm that top-level employees sexually harass lower level employees. However, few victims report the incident, and this makes is hard to solve the problem amicably. For this reason, the theorists confirm that social movements develop due to unresolved social injustices in all institutions of the society. Other unique cases like harassment of lesbians show a conflict in accepting social change in the current society. Therefore, there is a dire need to establish better strategies that address the causes and implications of sexual harassment in all institutions of the society.


The American Constitution

Part A

Question 1

  1. Blackmun’s Argument for his Decision about the Permissibility of Abortion

In the Joe verses Wade case, Judge Blackmun ruled that abortion was permissible. Firstly, the judge cited the right of personal privacy, which gives a woman the right to decide whether to terminate a pregnancy or give birth. Secondly, the judge said the word person mentioned in the Constitution does not mention an unborn child. Therefore, the Federal law did not protect an unborn baby. Thirdly, Justice Blackmun maintained that the Texas law failed the Strict Scrutiny Test. Accordingly, the Court had to revert to a historical review of abortion cases in the country as current ones lacked a historical foundation. The judge used this analysis to show that the law allowed women to have an abortion.

  1. Explain White’s reasoning for Dissenting with Blackmun’s Decision

Conversely, Justice White dissented the majority ruling arguing that the Court lacked a legitimate petitioner. The judge reasoned that the Court needed a plaintiff in the first trimester of pregnancy to support its verdict that states should not regulate abortion in the first trimester. Since the court lacked such a witness, the case was null and void. Secondly, Justice White maintained that abortion was not a private act as the Court claimed. The entire process involved a licensed physician prodding the body of the pregnant individual. Thirdly, the judge argued that the right to privacy did not extend far enough to guarantee the right to abortion. Finally, Judge White explained that the rational relations test was appropriate for the due process case.

  1. Which Judge Advances the More Cogent Position on the Abortion Issue?

Granted, Judge Blackmun advanced a more cogent position on the topic of abortion in the country. The judge began by comparing the rights of women versus the interest of the state, which were critical issues the case. Justice Blackmun’s argument that an abortion during the first three months of pregnancy did not affect the health of the mother was valid. Furthermore, the interest of the state to protect the health of the mother was not affected. Hence, they did not have the right to regulate abortion. However, the judge agreed that the interest of the state came into play after the first three months when the danger of having an abortion increased.

Part B

Question 8

  1. What Conclusion is he trying to Support; What Reasons is he giving to Support the Conclusion?

Szasz supports the conclusion that the government has no right over the ideas one makes or the drugs they pump into their bodies. The libertarian psychiatrist argued that in a free market, businessmen can sell any product. What is important in a free market is the profit traders make from their sales. According to Szasz, drugs are commodities just like any other. The psychiatrist further argues that if the government aims to reduce harm to the users, then it should ensure the free sale of drugs in stores in the country. Doing so would ensure that doctors provide prescriptions to clients.

  1. Quality of Szasz’s reasoning

However, the argument put forward by Szasz does not hold water because drug use threatens the lives of the user and the society. Drug addicts can cause harm to their bodies and on those they love. Therefore, the government has to intervene to protect such individuals by terming the act as a crime. Additionally, commercializing drugs in the country would teach children that using drugs was acceptable. Moreover, personal drug use impinged on the rights of non-users, which goes against the civil rights. Personal drug use seems harmless to society in the beginning. However, buying illegal drugs funds the activities of drug traffickers and cartels around the globe. Such groups put communities in which the consumers live at risk of violence and death.

Campbell’s Hero’s Journey


Question One: Campbell’s Hero’s Journey

The ordinary life of the Hero is unspectacular and frigid. He moves to a new location and subsequently becomes frightened by the new surroundings. His unspectacular start represents a mythological perspective in which the would-be heroes usually experience a slow start to their live, before rising to prominence. The hero’s call to adventure occurs in the form of a fairy, which in turns transitions into a bug. As the fairy changes from its hideous form to an absolute beauty, the Hero becomes mesmerized and follows the creature into the night. This is indicative of the fact that humans are prone to follow others blindly without due consideration of their safety.

Evidently, he does not refuse the call, but seeks to follow the fairy into an uncertain world. He never changes his resolve to escape from the harsh world. Presently, he meets a mentor, who does a good job of guiding him back to reality. Just like in the ordinary world, the mentor is crucial in reinstating orderliness in the Hero’s troubled life. He then encounters tests, allies and enemies, who try to derail his journey back to the ordinary world. The trial of the Pale Man represents the Hero’s approach to the inmost cave (Campbell). The mentor turns against him and eventually expels him for misconduct when he discovered that she had touched his food.

Thereafter, the Hero experiences the ordeal when he suffers a tragedy of death of a loved one. This ordeal is similar to his disenchantment after his fairy world failure. His rewards materializes in his deep trust of a new mentor, who turns out to be his true savior as the two escape the estate to live with the rebels. He must resist all temptation and stand his ground in one last chance. This represents a route back to redemption. The hero must face one last attempt at redefining himself. The resolve for self-defense turns tragic as his nemesis finally kills him. Finally, the Hero returns with the elixir and his spirit finally ascends to the realms of the fairy world.

Question 2: Pan’s Labyrinth Reviews

The “Pan’s Labyrinth” is an exceptional movie that centers on the reality of war. Jim Emerson describes the film as one of cinema’s great fantasies, complete with great fantasies and wonder. Guillermo Del Toro’s inject the film with potency and awesome beauty, which captures adults’ imagination. In fact, Emerson claimed that the film had the same effect that “Alice in Wonderland” or the “Wizard of Oz” had on children. Emerson further claims that Pan’s Labyrinth is a movie that is only suitable for children due to its “R” rating, hence a harsh and uncompromising film.

In my own opinion about the movie, its narrative is mazy; hence creating an impression of an ebb and flow of an ocean. In the extreme, the narrative is gory and heart-wrenching, particularly the death of Ofelia. Notwithstanding the fact that it is a fantasy narrative, the movie has many similarities to contemporary battle fronts. As the 11-year-old Ofelia travels with her pregnant mother to a forest outpost, the cruelty of mankind comes to the fore (Toro). This cruelty manifests itself in the form of Vidal who in his quest to achieve his resistance aim kills Ofelia when she seeks to rescue her brother. The story is highly enlightening, and it reminds the viewers of the cruelty of war. In my view, it is a compelling narrative that will remain relevant for years to come.

Looking Through a Different Lens

Social Conflict theory is an important theoretical framework within the field of criminology and sociology. It states that particular segments of society benefit from established social and economic arrangements in the society (Spiegel, 2006). These provisions allow them to use state resources to maintain that inequality. Although this theoretical tradition was restricted to the economics of society, racial and ethnic factors have become an integral part. It reflects the fact that poverty and crime are part and parcel of the American society. Police departments are powerful institutions in the country. The American Constitutions sanction most of their activities. However, the elite continues to use them to foster their agendas. Social conflict theory explains the behavior of the police towards the public.

I agree with conflict theorists that privileged societal elites to use the police to suppress the activities of threatening individuals and groups. The perspective views society as a collection of competing sets of people. Each of these groups uses resources at their disposal to maintain personal economic status. Additionally, they extend this privilege to friends and families. Policing is a daunting task for the police because dominant groups control their activities. What the police do on the streets to maintain social order is not an individual action.

Additionally, I agree with the social conflict theory that the police have a negative attitude toward outgroups. According to this perspective, law enforcement officers emphasize the importance of in groups in their departments. These individuals believe that they must protect themselves from the public (Weitzer, Tuch, & Skogan, 2008). Indeed, when the police encounter aggressive populations such as demonstrators, they display aggression. Sometimes, they flee to save their lives. Conflict theorists assert that the police believe that the public is always out to harm the police, thus the need to remain armed at all times.

Moreover, I agree with the social conflict theory that the law enforcement institution is too powerful to be challenged by minority groups in the country. The theorists argue that the law sanctions the activities of the police. The dominant groups in society are aware of this power and use it to reduce resistance from the subjugated communities (Weitzer, Tuch, & Skogan, 2008). The wealthy realize that social disorder is not the best environment for business. Given the implications of the theory, it means that the operations of the police divide the public along social and economic lines (Hageman, 1985). In the American context, doing so opposes the interests of the poor people in society.

In conclusion, the social conflict theory explains the role of the police in maintaining social order in the country. These conflict theorists argue that elites gain from economic differences in the country. Pronounced economic differences allow the wealthy people in the society to control law and order. The elite work with the police to maintain social order in society so that their businesses do not suffer losses. Consequently, the state deploys the cops to metropolitan areas to ensure peace prevails. In some cases, the police use force when locals resist their invasion. However, the judicial system does not punish the law enforcement officers for any act of violence because they act on the orders of their superiors. Constitutionally, the police maintain social order. However, their training prepares them for violent encounters in the line of duty. The police are skeptic of members of the public because of the animosity that exists between these two sides.


Essay 1: Causes of Wars and Conflicts

More than 40 percent of the third-world nations have suffered the ravages of wars at varying intensities. Political, social, and economic inequalities between various groups culminate in disagreements and wars. Notably, wars have adverse effects on social and economic development in nations. Beside wealth disparities, conflicts in any society occur due to cultural aspects linked to religions or ethnic backgrounds. To foster social growth, members of communities should consider executing measures that mitigate conflict and war amongst groups.

Firstly, researchers highlight economic, social, and political inequalities as the primary causes of war in communities. Differences in economic resources may result in extreme poverty. Those subjected to poverty have reduced access to state services, and this might cause conflict. The low-income group may then become belligerent towards the rich due to unfair wealth distribution. For example, studies cite poverty as one of the primary factors that led to war in Rwanda.

Secondly, changes in relations among parties can cause conflicts and war in the society. Those on good terms have specific expectations on treatment accorded to each other. Changes in these expectations could trigger war. The concept of Social Contract can explain this phenomenon. According to this principle, stability depends on the relationship between people and their governments. People conform to the orders of the state so that the latter can provide services for them. Frustrations with the ruling government can lead to war.

Fortunately, various policies can reduce the occurrence of war in societies. Firstly, leaders should address inequalities in societies and focus on development agendas. In doing so, they can curb war that emanates from intergroup conflicts over the distribution of resources. Secondly, governments should seek strategies to include the participation of people in the government, particularly in minorities. The majority may oppress the minority groups, thus, increasing probability of wars due to disagreements between some factions and the government.

Conclusively, society leaders should acknowledge the major causes of war and potential methods to avoid them. Economic, political, and economic inequalities are the primary triggers of conflict. Organizational leaders should promote equality in the distribution of resources to prevent wars.

Essay 2 Transitional Justice

Wars and human rights violations have occurred in various nations across the world. When the conflicting parties resolve their differences, they require adopting plans to address crimes that occur in the course of the war. Transitional justice is relevant in such scenarios, as it determines the stability of such communities after resolving their conflicts. Notably, transitional justice refers to the manner in which societies emerging from wars can address systematic human rights issues that are beyond jurisdictions of the normal justice system. There should be adequate mechanisms to achieve transitional justice.

Different measures to achieve transitional justice may involve criminal prosecutions of the major perpetrators of war. The second method is to provide reparations to the victims of human rights violation. Nations may consider reforming laws and institutions, including judiciary, military, and police. Lastly, the “truth-seeking” approach can be utilized to accomplish transitional justice. In this method, non-judicial agencies assist in investigating human rights abuse cases.

It is important to note that the effectiveness of these measures in facilitating transitional justice varies from one situation to another. Firstly, the reforms agency is one of the most effective means of facilitating transitional justice because it promotes accountability while preventing recurrence of the problem. Although it is expensive to implement, reparation initiatives are effective in addressing human rights violations.

Conclusively, transitional justice is essential to sustaining peace in societies emerging from wars. However, it is crucial to choose the best approach to realize transitional justice. Despite the efficiency of reforms measures in promoting accountability for violent war crimes, nations should consider executing reparation measures when possible. Such measure encourages reconciliation and peace after conflicts are over.

Essay 3: America as an Empire

America has already achieved the status of an empire. Like other empires in world history, America is the most influential state with the strongest army. It seeks to address social, economic, and political concerns emerging in nations worldwide. Conversely, America plays a significant role in maintaining peace and stability in the world. The country resolves matters that jeopardize not only the lives of American citizens, but also communities around the world. Therefore, America is an empire since it has significant similarities with the great historic empires.

The state of being an empire might not be beneficial for America since it may be not ready to assume its responsibilities as the dominant superpower. Before focusing on global matters, the nation should address all internal issues affecting its stability. For example, the country should address the issue of inequality among the American communities before venturing to resolve this issue on a global scale.

Besides, America is preoccupied with initiatives aimed to advance its military and weaponry further. Focusing on this issue detracts the nation from efforts to resolve internal conflicts. In doing so, the American leadership increases chances of conflict between state and community interests. Such a scenario could result in war and subsequent fall of the empire.

In conclusion, American has attained the status of an empire, although at an inopportune time. The nation has developed significantly to become the most powerful state of the world. However, the tendency of the government to focus on global affairs may cause the country to fail. The nation’s leaders should seek to enhance fairness and equity amongst its population.



Teen Parenting

Raising children is a difficult task for any parent, especially those bringing kids up for the first time. It is more problematic if they are more than two. However, a particularly challenging phase is parenting adolescents and teenagers. Three of the most commonly asked questions are: how can a parent deal with teen mood swings and tantrums? How can a parent teach a teen to be responsible and avoid harmful behavior? How can a parent improve communication with their teen? A more specific point of interest would be exploring parents’ ways of correcting their teenagers after they have done something wrong. It is particularly difficult because many youngsters tend to create an antagonistic reaction towards the parent afterwards. Nonetheless, children of this age need guidance and assistance from their parents.

Article 1: 5 Mistakes Parents Make With Teens and Tweens

  1. Citation

Barker, J. (2011). 5 mistakes parents make with teens and tweens. (WebMD).

  1. Summary of Findings

One common mistake that parents undertake is expecting the worst from their sons and daughters. A parent who expects negativity from their children will find it difficult to create a meaningful bond with the teen. Additionally, it manifests the theory where expecting the worst can endorse the same behavior in them. Another common mistake parents commit is reading too many parenting books. Some of the instructions do not fit in the setting of all parent-teen relationships. As a result, they end up worsening the situation when they follow everything in the book. According to the article, they should not focus on the irrelevant issues and ignore the more serious ones. For instance, many parents are concerned on issues such as hairstyle and major problems such as alcohol abuse.

  1. Relevance of the Article to the Research Questions

The article is relevant to the research questions as it focuses on the common parents’ mistakes. According to the article, parents’ action can result in negative consequences in teenagers’ upbringing. Many parents question the actions they take to ensure a better upbringing of their youngsters.

Article 2: 10 Parenting Tips for Raising Teenagers

  1. Citation

Davis, J. (2003). 10 parenting tips for raising teenagers. WebMD.

  1. Findings

The article by Jeanie Davis provides parents with several tips that they can implement to improve their association with their teens. One suggested strategy is that parents should give their teens some room for personal growth and experiences. Another technique for getting better relationship bonds with teens is to invite their friends over. It is a fact that regardless whether a parent is happy about their teenager’s friends or not, they will have social ties. The best way to understand these friends is through welcoming and interacting with them regularly. The author suggests tips relating to ways that both the child and the parent can follow. Parents should involve their teenagers in coming up with house rules, regulations, and responsibilities to avoid the feeling that they are controlled.

  1. Relevance of the Article to the Research Questions.

The article is relevant to the research questions in that it has information on parents’ ways of teaching their teenagers. The article is of benefit to parents who are concerned with ways of teaching their children to be responsible.

Article 3: Raising Teenagers: The Mother of All Problems

  1. Citation

Cusk, R. (2015). Raising Teenagers: The Mother of All Problems. The New York Times.

  1. Findings

The author gives an overview of her experience with her daughter. She describes her relationship with her teenage daughter as different from when she was a toddler. In many occasions, most parents find themselves in similar compromising situations with their teenagers when they are hostile and irritable. The author gives more examples of parent-teen relationships that are not smooth, proving that indeed the phase is critical. In some examples, the youngsters have defected from living with one parent (in the case of divorce), and opted to move in with the other because they do not have stern rules. Raising teenagers is difficult, and it sometimes requires making tough decisions.

  1. Relevance to Research Questions

The article is relevant to the research questions in that it provides numerous scenarios of parents who are in the dilemma of raising teens. They have had to deal with mood swings and tantrums that in some cases have turned verbally abusive. However, parents can take up multiple measures based on the character of their children. When a teenager is hostile, the guardian should be more stringent. According to the article and in response to the research questions, guardians should be aware that as much as the youngsters should be given their free space to express themselves, there should be limitations and rules to follow and respect.

Article 4: Teen Temper Tantrums: 3 Steps to Stop the Screaming

  1. Citation

Kramer, M. (n.d.). Teen Temper Tantrums: 3 Steps to Stop the Screaming. Empowering Parents.

  1. Findings

The author mainly focuses on conflict resolution between parents and their teens. He compares the difficult years of parenting teenagers, especially on children around the age of two. However, the difficulties are unique since parents deal with rational young adults who strive to identify themselves. They are in a phase of crossfires of childhood and adulthood demands. The author indicates that teenagers experience tantrums as they are undergoing personal transformation. They become self-centered and are gradually becoming entitled to their individual needs and actions. One major step of controlling teenage tantrums is to reward trust-earning behavior. Another step is to look for good traits among the teen’s goals and motivate them to achieving it.

  1. Relevance to Research Questions

The article to the research questions since it highlights the possible causes of dispute between parents and teenagers. The author helps to see a way of dealing with teen’s tantrums. Parents should encourage positive traits in their children. In doing so, they are able to bond with them over positive aspects only. Additionally, the article helps readers to understand that teenage grumpiness may be a result of other external factors. Thus, parents need to try and understand the root causes of such irritabilities.

Article 5: Why Girls Talk, and What They’re really Saying

  1. Citation

Shaffer, S. M., & Gordon, L. P. (2005). Why Girls Talk–and What They’re Really Saying. McGraw Hill Professional.

  1. Findings

The author focuses on the teenage girl, stating that communication is a fundamental aspect of raising teenagers. However, the communication techniques of teens are not as direct as toddlers. For instance, it is not a guarantee that a teenager expresses their feelings. If they do, they may not express themselves clearly. Therefore, parents should be able to decipher deeper meanings of their teenagers’ conversations and act accordingly. For example, a teenage daughter may want to know how to cook a particular meal. The girl’s sudden interest may be a spark of responsibility, and a parent should not hold back such growth.

  1. Relevance to the Research Questions

The author provides relevance to the research questions regarding how parents can deal with their teens. Children are able to express themselves fully, but that is not the same when it comes to young adults. Parents can use the suggested techniques stipulated by the author to improve their communication with their teenagers.

Article 6: Parenting Teens – The Ten Most Commonly Asked Questions and Concerns

  1. Citation

Daniele, T. (2014). Parenting Teens – The Ten Most Commonly Asked Questions and Concerns. Teen Discipline 101.

  1. Findings

The article contains commonly asked questions and their responses. The author uses a Q and A format to respond to some of the major concerns regarding teen parenting. Daniele (the author) states that every unique situation that a teenager is facing should be handled independently. For instance, some scenarios are not worth throwing a fit about, for example, the shelf tidiness of the youngsters’ rooms. However, parents should not take all situations lightly. Some behaviors such as smoking are harmful to their health. Therefore, parents should not ignore them.

  1. Relevance to the Research Questions

The article is relevant to the research questions as it highlights all the major concerns that parents have regarding their teenagers. Moreover, the author provides a general overview that works for most parents. The methods of teen parenting are diverse, which makes it difficult for adults to select suitable courses of actions that will work for their teenagers. Finally, the article is relevant to the research questions because it gives an insight of the possible alternative options for parenting.

The Travels of a T-Shirt in the Global Economy

Chapter 9

In this section, the author takes readers through a journey of Chinese T-shirt makers from Asia to the U.S. The chairman of the American Manufacturing Trade Action Coalition (AMTAC), Auggie, was aware and against these foreign investors. According to Auggie, the government was supposed to stop Chinese apparel manufacturers from entering the U.S. market so that they do not hurt local ventures. Contrary to Auggie’s expectations, members of Congress, and retired politicians were calling for fair trade policies, which would encourage Chinese investors into the U.S. Various organizations, including ATMI, AMTAC, NTA, AYSA, AFMA, NCC, ASlA, ATMA, CRI GTMA THA AFAI NCMA and TDA united to fight against Chinese apparel firms in the nation (Rivoli, 2014). Subsequently, George Bush administration instituted safeguard quotas that restricted Chinese textile and apparel imports. In the author’s perspective, the political barriers to the Chinese apparel manufacturers to the U.S. were apparent. Harsh trade policies had continued to hurt the Chinese apparel market share in the U.S. The U.S. imports of cotton knit shirts from various nations had experienced a significant growth compared to imports from China. According to the writer, it was the trade policy rather than the comparative advantage that accounted for the trend.

Julia, an opponent of harsh trade policies in apparel industry invested efforts to promote free trade policies in the nation without success. She argued that the country should allow free access to the U.S. markets for all apparel that Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) members produce. Despite being a member of CAFTA, the U.S. has enacted various regulations to limit the access of foreign investors to the U.S. apparel market. Furthermore, the government implemented complex but different rules to control T-shirt imports from Sub Saharan Africa, the Caribbean basin, Ecuador, Columbia, and Mexico. For the free trade advocates like Julia, it was outrageous for the government to refer to its trade policies as “free trade agreements” while the participants’ access to the U.S. market were highly controlled.

Chapter 10

In this chapter, the author seeks to determine the reason for increased political influence and complex trade barriers in T-shirt industry at the era of progressive trade liberalization. According to the author, the apparel industry faced hostile foreign competition, and significant threats from imports post WWII. International apparel companies used unfair means of competition to humiliate local producers. Consequently, the government perceived the need to rescue the industry from potential failure and compensate interested entities for what they had persevered after the war. At the same time, the government had to stop international firms from harming one of the nation’s biggest industry and employer. Nevertheless, the strength of alliances in the sector and their access to policymakers helped in restricting the access of U.S. apparel to international players.

On the contrary, the diverse international businesses found it difficult to speak in one voice, thus a reduced bargaining power. The author points out that trade interest parties in the local apparel industry had a significant influence on foreign trade policies. The author further contends that every U.S. President post-World War II strived to promote free trade relations in the nation. While some of them did it to keep Communists at bay, some considered it the best economic policy. Despite these efforts, the authors argues that all the leaders have found it challenging to implement free trade policy without paying the textile and apparel industries to remove barriers. Albeit the robust efforts to achieve free trade policies, the U.S. may take an extended period to fulfill such initiatives.

Chapter 11

In this chapter, the author assesses the roles and impacts of trade policies in apparel and textile sectors. The U.S. implemented a protectionist system intended to protect traders in the two industries from unfair competition. Besides, the framers of the protectionist trade regulations were optimistic that these systems would spark the nation’s economy and protect jobs. The government used both restrictive quotas and tariffs on imported goods to promote local trade and discourage foreign investors. However, the policy still had adverse consequences on employment. Surveys suggest that rate of employment in these industries deteriorated as a result of technological advancements in the sector. Even if the policies protected these producers from foreign competition, they had to endure significant effects of internal rivalry and those firms seeking to preserve jobs could not survive in competitive environments.

The author points out the protectionist policies had more adverse effects on employment in China than the U.S. In this regard, China lost ten times as many textile jobs as did the U.S. between 1995 and 2002. Similar to the case in the U.S., production and revenues were rising despite massive job losses (Rivoli, 2014). More importantly, the author notes that quotas have encouraged China and other low potential producers to become high-end producers that translates to an increase in revenues. While the U.S. tightened quotas for the Chinese manufacturers, the latter shifted from one nation to another in a bid to survive in the textile sector. For example, Esquel Corporation, the world’s biggest cotton producer, moved its markets from the U.S. to Malaysia and finally settled in Mauritius and Maldives. The author attributes “global hopping” to trade policies advocating for tightened quotas for foreign investors.

Chapter 12

In this chapter, the book explains the state of apparel and textile industry after the end of temporary protectionism in 2009. As one would expect, China’s exports to the U.S. increased by an average of 400% with some categories rising as high as 1200 percent. After the quotas were lifted, it was apparent that China did not reflect as much product surges as people thought. The thought that there was only a brief window for China imports in the U.S. between both the Americans and Chinese accounted for the surges from China. Moreover, the surges were part of negotiations between the U.S. government and foreign nations. For most of the countries that feared that products from China would jeopardize their business with the U.S. importers, it became clear after 2005 that the U.S. consumer’s penchant for shopping left plenty of demand for all.

Subsequently, the time needed to deliver goods and proximity to the U.S. became essential factors for the nations exporting to the U.S. For example, Central American countries attracted business with the importers due to their proximity and speed of delivering the products. By 2008, China could not exploit the U.S. market at the desired levels as quotas still restricted their exports. However, China improved its market performance on the industry in 2009 when the government removed most of the quotas for Chinese products. Political influence continued to affect the performance of the sector in the entire Obama’s reign. The author further discusses various instances of trade wars in the history of the apparel sector, particularly the ones that affected the industry’s performance in Europe.