ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS

Media houses termed the James Monroe reign between 1815 and 1825 as the Era of Good Feelings. The political rivalry and difference in opinion between the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans subsided. Divisive debates over slavery, wars, tariffs, and the Second National Bank seemed to take a backseat. Unlike other chief executives in the past, President Monroe enjoyed immense popularity. However, this era collapsed in 1824 when four candidates participated in the presidential elections. Bad feelings culminated this period as politicians refused to compromise.

Factionalism within Jefferson’s party ended the Era of Good Feelings in the country.[1] The congressional caucus organized presidential nominations, which guaranteed participants an election. However, voters felt that that the system favored white males. So, when the caucus nominated William Crawford to run for the presidency, three other politicians showed interest in leading the nation. The voters witnessed the first contests between four candidates in the history of America.

Additionally, politicians felt that those in government used their position to further their interests. The pro-economic development regime supported the ventures of the elite. They ignored the will of the common people causing discontent among voters. In retaliation, various leaders came out to vie for the position of president[2]. Leaders, such as Jackson, wanted an inclusive government where all voters had a say. However, they failed to garner majority votes.

Moreover, the Era of Good Feelings ended when leaders refused to compromise. After the shaky James Madison administration, politicians from across the divide put aside their differences to support James Monroe run the nation. The previous government dealt with different problems including economic instability, protests, and the attack on Washington. Leaders did not want a repeat of the turmoil, thus, supported their president.

Finally, the Era of Good Feelings ended with bad feelings because of national division. The country was divided with one faction supporting Hamilton and the other backing Jefferson[3]. Over time, the animosity between these two camps intensified. As a result, each party sought for support from Congress, the legislature, and the executive. The Jeffersonians endorsed candidates for the different position including Congress and the presidency[4]. The Federalists followed suit by competing for the support of the mass electorate.

In conclusion, Americans wanted a peaceful government where all leaders put the interests of the people ahead of theirs. James Monroe granted their wishes. He formed an inclusive state. However, congressional caucus made it difficult for politicians to compromise. Those outside government felt that nominations were biased. Leaders refused to cooperate with a non-inclusive government.

[1] Tindall, George Brown, and David E. Shi. America: A narrative history. WW Norton & Company, 2016, 123

[2] Ibid, 23

[3] Tindall, George Brown, and David E. Shi. America: A narrative history. WW Norton & Company, 2016.

[4] Ibid, 34

 

Saudi Kids not speaking the Mother Language

To every parent or guardian, the birth of a child plays a critical role in the expansion of generations. In this case many take care of their children with the type of protection or mentorship which the youngster deserves. In the development stage, most children emulate the behavior of their parents. However, in some instances, young adults may emulate the conduct of the people who take care of them especially nannies. For example, a youngster can learn a particular language due to the influence of nannies even if it is not the mother language. Consequently, the parent serves as the first teacher to a child since he/she offers knowledge which cannot be taught in school. In this case, before the youngster joins a class, he/she will have gained a lot from the parent or guardian. Nevertheless, a lot of arguments have been generated questioning whether it is possible for children to learn a different language other than the mother tongue due to the influence of nannies.

In response to this particular argument, the focus goes to Saudi Arabian children who are raised by nannies and do not speak the mother language due to the influence of the caregivers. Consequently, these children speak English or Philippian English. Due to this, the youngsters’ behavior has been influenced greatly since there is diminished communication between them and the parents (Zafar, Mueen, Awedh, & Balubaid, 2014). If conversation is hindered, it becomes difficult for the children to describe what they want to their parents and this results to anger. Preference for the English language divides Arab parents. Although there are advantages and disadvantages of learning English as a second language, the rate at which Saudi’s children are learning the language has influenced their behavior. First, the youngsters are prone to suffer from erosion of culture (Unruh & Obeidat, 2015). Typically, it is evident that the mother tongue is vital in preserving cultures. In this case, adoption of English as the main language for the Saudi’s kids is prone divert their attention from Arabic at an early age. In this case, it becomes hard for them to learn the mother language once they have mastered English. The situation shows that the Saudi parents are to blame since they have allowed English speaking nannies to take care of their children.

Many Arabic parents believe that it is important to make children learn Arabic first and speak the language fluently in order for them to learn other languages easily. According to some, exposing them to English at an early stage only hampers their capability of learning English. When they are grown up, it will prove impossible to learn Arabic (Unruh & Obeidat, 2015). The parents whose children speak English instead of Arabic fail to understand that the diversity of language comprehension begins at an early stage. The language that comes first in a child’s life is what the youngster embraces. Therefore, there is presence of disagreements between parents and their children due erosion of culture brought about by preference of English instead of Arabic.

English comprehension at an early stage has caused a lot of problems to the Arabian community. As stated earlier, it is difficult for a child in Saudi to comprehend Arabic after being taught English from an early stage. The higher education committee for education policy in Saudi Arabia claims that the ultimate objective of education in the country is to assist students to comprehend Islam in a correct and all-inclusive manner (Zafar, Mueen, Awedh, & Balubaid, 2014). Moreover, the education aims at helping students to understand Islamic values, culture and teachings as well as equipping them with skills for spreading Islam (Ash, Rice, & Redmond, 2014). Therefore, a strong Islamic culture entails the ability to develop the society economically, socially, and culturally. Similarly, the education system prepares learners to make meaningful contribution to the welfare of the community. For that reason, it is evident that Saudi Arabia lays much emphasis on the cultural norms and values. The children that do not speak the mother language are regarded as foreign to the Islamic culture.

Consequently, personal discipline is another element that has been greatly influenced by adoption of English language at an early stage. Since most parents who follow strict Arabic rules do not understand English, there is a misunderstanding between them and their children (Al-Nasser, 2015). In this case, it becomes difficult for the guardians to instill discipline to the youngsters. Additionally, emulation of western culture contributes to lowered discipline levels. By accepting to speak English as their preferred and convenient mode of communication, the children also aspire to emulate English behavior. Typically, most western values are a taboo in the Islamic culture (Alrashidi & Phan, 2015). For instance, the mode of dressing by the western people defies Islamic culture and values. In this case, parents whose children learn English from an early stage continue to be in disagreements due to poor discipline.

Furthermore, failure to speak Arabic and opt English as the primary language has affected Saudi’s children’s behavior in relation to style and civilization. English is recognized globally as the primary mode of information sharing. By embracing English, the Saudi kids want to be associated with the world and can be ready to represent their country in other nations which do not speak Arabic (Al-Nofaie, 2016). While it is important to learn English since it is globally recognized as a mode of communication, people should not lose the identity of their culture. Mother tongue language should come first before one is mature enough to learn another language of choice (Al-Nofaie, 2016). Arabic parents have been furious since some of their children who are brought up by nannies learn English early in life to hinder their capability of comprehending Islam. In this case, there are cases of misunderstanding between parents and their children. The result of the misunderstanding is poor discipline.

Conclusively, the increased incidences of Saudi’s children speaking English instead of Arabic is a clear indication that the type of parenting offered to a youngster influences his/her conduct. In Saudi Arabia youngsters raised by nannies seem to understand the language used by the caregiver. If the nanny speaks English, there is a likelihood that the child will embrace English. Since many of the nannies come from other nations, the youngsters tend to adopt foreign behavior. The long term effect of these incidences is that youngsters have failed to honor the Arabic culture. Instead, they have embraced English as their primary mode of communication due to the type of upbringing granted unto them.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sudanese States and East and Southern Africa’s Kingdoms

Sudanese States and East and Southern Africa’s Kingdoms

The Sudanic empires of West Africa were a group of powerful states, which developed in the South of the Sahara desert. Songhai, Mali, and Ghana were the most prominent states. The Arabs referred to the Land south of the Sahara desert as the land of the blacks. The Sudanic empires had vast commercial networks and often traded gold and grains from the Sub-Saharan Africa for salt from the Sahara desert. Soninke people were the founders of Ghana as one of the Sudanic trading empire (Boahen 55). During the 800’s A.D, Ghana became one of the wealthy kingdoms. However, the empire declined while the Almoravids gained an influence over the trade routes in Sahara and other parts of Sudan. Although Ghana survived the 1200’s A.D, it failed to regain its former influence and control. The Sudanese States had notable differences with the Eastern and South Africa’s Kingdoms in the aspects of geographical location, history of the two regions, and slavery practices.

Firstly, the Sudanic empires were a group of influential states, which developed South of the Sahara desert in the 700s and 1500s (Boahen 71). The Western Sudan was located in the northern part of West Africa. Initially, the Western Sudan extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the basin of Lake Chad. The historians have recognized Western Sudan as a land of great empires. Western Sudan encompass a broad of Savannah extending from the Sahara desert to the tropical rain forest of Guinea Coast. The empires of the Western Sudan were unified through strong leadership and kin based societies.

On the contrary, the Great Zimbabwe was one of the kingdoms in South Africa. The kingdom is located between Zambezi and Limpopo rivers and east of the Kalahari Desert. In the 11th and 15th century, the Great Zimbabwe was a thriving business empire. The Great Zimbabwe was the successor of Mapungubwe, which was located in the central Limpopo valley. The Shona people of South Africa were the main residents of Mapungubwe. The Iron Age settlers were the first people in Mapungubwe and resided in the place between 1000 AD and 1300 AD.

Secondly, the Kingdoms of Eastern and South Africa had historic differences with the Sudanese states and empires. The Western Sudan was a historic region in the northern part of West Africa. Historians recognized Western Sudan as an area with great empires. Ghana is one of the widely recognized empire of the Western Sudan. Ghanaian government possessed sophisticated methods of taxation and well concealed gold mines. Although the King of the Soninke failed to embrace Islam, he fostered good relationships with Islamists to promote trade.

Mapungubwe was one of the first states in South Africa in 1220-1300. Besides, the region was a symbol of the artefacts found in the region. The Shona people of South Africa were the main residents of Mapungubwe area. Iron Age settlers were the first group of people in the region. The Mapungubwe people were wealthy and reared different kinds of animals such as cows, goats, and even dogs. They produced large volumes of food products for trade. The archaeologists discovered remain of millet and sorghum in their storage huts.

Thirdly, the two regions had different systems of slavery. Slavery in Sudan began in the ancient times and had a resurgence during the Second Sudanese Civil War. In Ghana, slavery was widely practiced as a result of increased demand of human labour. In fact, slaves were one of the commodities of trade.

Similarly, slaver trade was a common practice among the states of Eastern and Southern Africa. In South Africa, slave trade was a common practice before the arrival of the Europeans. The African slaves served as sailors. As a result of increased demand for ivory, the slaves were used as porters of the products.

In conclusion, the Sudanese empires of western African had historical differences with East and South Africa’s states and Kingdoms. However, the two regions had similarities in that they both practiced slavery. Ghana, being one of the Sudanic empires, had an extensive commercial network to conduct trade. Eventually, Ghana became one of the wealthiest nations in the 800s. On the contrary, Zimbabwe was one of the common kingdoms of Eastern and Southern Africa. Great Zimbabwe was the successor of Mapungubwe in trade.

 

 

Should People make Intelligent Robot

The case is about a robotic boy who is indistinguishable from others. He is designed in a way that allows him to experience human-like emotions implying that he needs caretakers. The boy is adopted by a couple who later abandons him. It becomes a complex case because the robot is a computer artifact that shares human attributes. The indication that this robot experiences emotions implies that it is conscious of people around it and especially, the actions that impact its well-being. Although it is a computer artifact, the robot can take part in conversations and social interactions. After being abandoned by the parents who adopted him, the robotic boy felt betrayed and neglected just like a normal human child would feel. Did his parents commit any wrong by abandoning him?

Central stakeholders in this case are people who designed and created the artificial boy, himself, and the couple who adopts him. Other stakeholders can include the society where the boy lives and the mediators of his sale. This case will focus on the manufacturer, the artificial boy, and his adopters.

The technical problem in this case is finding a caretaker for the artificial boy. Although the boy is a robot that can be dismantled, he is indistinguishable from other boys meaning that people who see him will assume he is alive. Additionally, he is designed with the capability to experience emotions. Emotions cause people to take actions that can either have a positive or negative impact on their society. If the artificial boy takes an inappropriate action, somebody needs to be accountable for his deeds. He needs to be taught to cope with emotions assuming that he has the ability to learn new behaviors from his experiences.

Although the artificial boy finds a couple to adopt him, his caretakers later abandon him. There is an ethical problem in the abandonment. For one, the boy’s actions are unpredictable. Because of the emotion void that is created after his parents abandon him, he is likely to harm those around himself. Secondly, the fact that this boy is capable of participating in life by processing what people say and contributing to their discussions makes him ‘alive’ to some extent. Some would, therefore, argue that abandoning him is equivalent to neglecting any other child.

The existence of the boy as a computer artifact is one of the perspectives that can be used to argue the case. He has been designed by humans and runs on software which, makes him a computer artifact regardless of his human attributes. If he becomes unbearable to his caretakers and the society at large, the best thing would be, to dispose him properly by dismantling. Moral responsibility is another factor that can be used to argue the case. The couple who adopted the boy is answerable for his behavior. According to ethics, people who buy a computer artifact should be responsible for its use. The adopters should therefore, explore better ways of solving the problem instead of abandoning him. If the social technical systems paradigm is used to assess the case, the manufacturers are the ones to blame. The manufacturers should have foreseen the complexity of interacting with a robot that has emotional feelings and avoid building it to uphold ethical standards.

The first rule states that people who design a computer artifact are morally responsible for its foreseeable effects. Additionally, those who use it as part of a socialtechnical system are to blame for the effects of the artifact. Using this rule, both the designers and the adopters of the robot are to blame for the crisis. The designers can solve the problem by recalling the robot and dismantling it completely or taking away the part that gives it emotional responsiveness. Its adopters need to devise strategies that will ensure the boy does not disturb them and the adjacent society. They could need to see the manufacturer for necessary modifications. The second rule states that everybody who is involved in designing and deploying a computer artifact is responsible for its outcome. The responsibility of solving the problem should therefore be shared by all stakeholders. They need to collaborate and agree on a solution instead of blaming each other. The third rule states that people who use a computer artifact are morally responsible for that particular use. The parents therefore take a heavier blame for abandoning their robotic boy. Before adopting him, they should have learned about his behaviors and capabilities first to reassure themselves that they can live with him comfortably.

The solutions given for the technical and ethical problems in this case can stand criticism for various reason. The first solution where the adopters are recommended to return the artificial boy to his creators for dismantling is the most feasible of all approaches. It could be argued that even humans need to die at some point in their lives and especially, when it becomes difficult for society to bear with them. As long as the artificial boy is allowed to continue existing, he will create more problems because his ability to process emotion makes him unpredictable. His creators can decide on whether to dismantle him completely or to modify his design so that he can no longer ‘feel’.

I would recommend the manufacturers of robots to avoid making creations that have unpredictable behavior. All computer artifacts should have foreseeable outcomes so that it is easy to solve problems. If creating an unpredictable artifact is inevitable, the manufacturer needs to have a contingency plan that outlines the process of disposing artifact. I would consider it unethical to create a robot that process emotions and interact with the conventional society.

Hotel’s liberty

In John Stuart’s viewpoint, maximizing liberty would result in optimizing happiness in the society. However, critics of his argument contend that freedom in the society could result in people making wrong choices and harming themselves, family members, and other people. Nevertheless, some themes in his work seem to counter this criticism. People should not misconstrue Stuart’s perception liberty with the unrestricted freedom that might jeopardize the wellness of other community members. Although the author argues that liberty is indispensable to promote happiness, he suggests that the society has the responsibility to exercise power over individuals if the primary objective of such control is to prevent harm to others.

Mill (230) indicate that utility is the ultimate appeal in every moral dilemma, but it must be in its broad sense. If persons exercise their liberty in a way that does not cause harm to others, the society may not impose punishments on them without evidence about their offenses. According to the author, the society guarantees different types of liberties that do not apply to all individuals. Despite advocacy to these liberties, there still exists the unqualified. For this reason, Mill (232) postulates that the only necessary form of freedom is the one that allows people to pursue happiness in their own ways as long as they do not compromise the happiness of others. Moreover, such liberties should comprise of impressions that prevent people from impending the happiness of others.

In support of his idea, Mill (232) claims that people become happy when they allow “each other to live as seems good to themselves than by compelling each to live as seems good to the rest” (Mill 232). To optimize happiness, the idea of granting freedom should only apply to people of sane minds. The society must protect children and young adults against their own actions, especially those that could result in self-harm. In this argument, Mill counters the argument that increased freedom would lead to people making bad decisions and killing others (Mill 232).

If the society was to adopt Stuart’s proposals, particular changes would be mandatory. Firstly, the most significant changes would affect the justice systems since criminal laws would change. In such situations, a person would be considered guilty only if he/she impedes others’ pursuit of happiness. In Stuart’s perspective, a civilized society should not compel an individual to do something because people deem it the right thing for themselves or others. Secondly, all the societies would shift to capitalism. Notably, capitalism promotes self-determination, which is essential to promote happiness at individual level. Lastly, the society would set up policies to limit the freedom of young adults and children. These regulations would be vital to protect them from causing harm to themselves and others.

Mill presents his view on how the society should promote happiness. He suggests that freedom can maximize happiness in the society. On the contrary, opponents of this premise contend that freedom would hurt the society, as it can lead to making wrong choices and killing others. In regard to this, Mill claims that freedom should be granted to people of rational minds, and that society should protect the immature against actions that can result in harm. He adds that freedom allowing individuals to follow own interests is crucial to ensuring people are optimally happy. However, communities require changing its laws if they were to adopt Stuart’s proposals

Organizational Behavior in the Workplace

 

Organization Behavior (OB) is the study of interaction dynamics within groups in a workplace setting. Usually, managers use various concepts of OB to develop more efficient business systems (Huczynski & Buchanan, 2010). The discipline of OB forms a part of management science, which organizations use as a basis for learning and development. Decision-making, problem-solving, conflict-resolution, adaptability, and self-awareness are the key areas of OB that employees can focus on to improve their conduct and workplace performance.

Organization Behavior and Decision Making

Decision-making is the process of selecting alternative course of actions. While one can argue that it is a key managerial function, studies reveal that managers often fail in half of their decisions (Ireland & Miller, 2004). Therefore, in order to maximize employees’ effectiveness at work, managers must ensure that they always make the best decisions in every situation. In this regard, employees can improve their job skills by being pragmatic, which is an act of making practical decisions as opposed to making poor ones (Ireland & Miller, 2004). Thus, when employees make better decisions, they improve their productivity and help steer the organization in the right direction.

Organization Behavior & Conflict Resolution

Conflict-resolution is the process of finding an agreement and a solution (Ireland & Miller, 2004). It is an integral component of OB since conflicts in the workplace are common occurrences. In order to resolve workplace conflicts effectively, managers must possess mediation skills to help the conflicting parties to reach an amicable agreement. In other words, employees with conflict-resolution skills smoothen the working environment.

Organization Behavior and Problem-Solving

According to Huczynski & Buchanan (2010), employees can adopt a 3-step process for improving their personal and team performance. The 3-step model is an elaborate version for achieving rational decisions. The first approach involves defining the problem and its nature. The second step involves using OB concepts to identify the potential causes of the problem. During this stage, one can use OB concepts such as contingency perspective, ethical considerations, and human and social capital (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2010). The last step is offering recommendations and taking appropriate action.

Organization Behavior and Adaptability

            Adaptability is the ability of employees to adjust to new environments and circumstances without losing their competency quality (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2010). Since organizations are dynamic in nature, it is crucial for employees to have adaptability skills in order to continue being productive, even in different circumstances. It is the responsibility of managers to ensure that employees are flexible and adaptable. Such skills enable staff members to seamlessly work in various environments without affecting their overall productivity. Moreover, adaptable employees can execute multiple roles at the same time, hence, increasing their value to the organization.

Organization Behavior and Self-Awareness

            Self-awareness capability enables employees to understand their emotions and their impacts on their daily work routine and on their workmates. Self-awareness is a crucial attribute for employees because it determines other factors such as relationships with customers, productivity, and mental wellbeing (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2010). Therefore, managers must ensure that employees’ temperaments do not affect the work environment. The OB concepts can act as a guide for employees to manage their emotions and channel all their efforts towards achieving organization goals.

How Organization Behavior Helps in Decision-making and Problem-solving

            According to Huczynski and Buchanan (2010), managers can use various OB models to make decisions and solve workplace problems. The OB model incorporates the principles of rational approach to both decision-making and problem-solving processes. First, managers must define the problem in terms of scope and ramifications in order to determine the necessary resources that they need for its resolution. Second, the problem solver must determine the root cause of the issue in terms of historical backgrounds and the possible motive for its occurrence. The last stage is the decision-making phase in which managers must recommend the appropriate course of actions to take in order to resolve the problem.

Consequences of Unethical Behavior in the Workplace

The situation of ethical dilemma occurs when there are two conflicting choices, neither of which resolves a problem in an acceptable manner (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2010). Unethical behavior at the workplace could impact negatively both the employees and the organization. For example, businesses can spend a considerable amount of money to repair reputation damage and settle lawsuits as a result of unethical choices. In addition, employees who propagate unethical behavior can lose their jobs.

In summary, OB is a crucial component of an organization because it governs the actions of employees. Some of the most common habits that have a bearing on OB include decision-making, conflict-resolution, problem-solving, adaptability, and self-awareness. The five behaviors impact both the employee and the organization. Moreover, employees can use the attributes as a platform to increase workplace performance. Specifically, OB comprises of platforms, which managers can use to resolve problems and make organization decisions. Lastly, ethical behaviors can precipitate serious ramifications, both on the business and employees.