Should People make Intelligent Robot

The case is about a robotic boy who is indistinguishable from others. He is designed in a way that allows him to experience human-like emotions implying that he needs caretakers. The boy is adopted by a couple who later abandons him. It becomes a complex case because the robot is a computer artifact that shares human attributes. The indication that this robot experiences emotions implies that it is conscious of people around it and especially, the actions that impact its well-being. Although it is a computer artifact, the robot can take part in conversations and social interactions. After being abandoned by the parents who adopted him, the robotic boy felt betrayed and neglected just like a normal human child would feel. Did his parents commit any wrong by abandoning him?

Central stakeholders in this case are people who designed and created the artificial boy, himself, and the couple who adopts him. Other stakeholders can include the society where the boy lives and the mediators of his sale. This case will focus on the manufacturer, the artificial boy, and his adopters.

The technical problem in this case is finding a caretaker for the artificial boy. Although the boy is a robot that can be dismantled, he is indistinguishable from other boys meaning that people who see him will assume he is alive. Additionally, he is designed with the capability to experience emotions. Emotions cause people to take actions that can either have a positive or negative impact on their society. If the artificial boy takes an inappropriate action, somebody needs to be accountable for his deeds. He needs to be taught to cope with emotions assuming that he has the ability to learn new behaviors from his experiences.

Although the artificial boy finds a couple to adopt him, his caretakers later abandon him. There is an ethical problem in the abandonment. For one, the boy’s actions are unpredictable. Because of the emotion void that is created after his parents abandon him, he is likely to harm those around himself. Secondly, the fact that this boy is capable of participating in life by processing what people say and contributing to their discussions makes him ‘alive’ to some extent. Some would, therefore, argue that abandoning him is equivalent to neglecting any other child.

The existence of the boy as a computer artifact is one of the perspectives that can be used to argue the case. He has been designed by humans and runs on software which, makes him a computer artifact regardless of his human attributes. If he becomes unbearable to his caretakers and the society at large, the best thing would be, to dispose him properly by dismantling. Moral responsibility is another factor that can be used to argue the case. The couple who adopted the boy is answerable for his behavior. According to ethics, people who buy a computer artifact should be responsible for its use. The adopters should therefore, explore better ways of solving the problem instead of abandoning him. If the social technical systems paradigm is used to assess the case, the manufacturers are the ones to blame. The manufacturers should have foreseen the complexity of interacting with a robot that has emotional feelings and avoid building it to uphold ethical standards.

The first rule states that people who design a computer artifact are morally responsible for its foreseeable effects. Additionally, those who use it as part of a socialtechnical system are to blame for the effects of the artifact. Using this rule, both the designers and the adopters of the robot are to blame for the crisis. The designers can solve the problem by recalling the robot and dismantling it completely or taking away the part that gives it emotional responsiveness. Its adopters need to devise strategies that will ensure the boy does not disturb them and the adjacent society. They could need to see the manufacturer for necessary modifications. The second rule states that everybody who is involved in designing and deploying a computer artifact is responsible for its outcome. The responsibility of solving the problem should therefore be shared by all stakeholders. They need to collaborate and agree on a solution instead of blaming each other. The third rule states that people who use a computer artifact are morally responsible for that particular use. The parents therefore take a heavier blame for abandoning their robotic boy. Before adopting him, they should have learned about his behaviors and capabilities first to reassure themselves that they can live with him comfortably.

The solutions given for the technical and ethical problems in this case can stand criticism for various reason. The first solution where the adopters are recommended to return the artificial boy to his creators for dismantling is the most feasible of all approaches. It could be argued that even humans need to die at some point in their lives and especially, when it becomes difficult for society to bear with them. As long as the artificial boy is allowed to continue existing, he will create more problems because his ability to process emotion makes him unpredictable. His creators can decide on whether to dismantle him completely or to modify his design so that he can no longer ‘feel’.

I would recommend the manufacturers of robots to avoid making creations that have unpredictable behavior. All computer artifacts should have foreseeable outcomes so that it is easy to solve problems. If creating an unpredictable artifact is inevitable, the manufacturer needs to have a contingency plan that outlines the process of disposing artifact. I would consider it unethical to create a robot that process emotions and interact with the conventional society.

Hotel’s liberty

In John Stuart’s viewpoint, maximizing liberty would result in optimizing happiness in the society. However, critics of his argument contend that freedom in the society could result in people making wrong choices and harming themselves, family members, and other people. Nevertheless, some themes in his work seem to counter this criticism. People should not misconstrue Stuart’s perception liberty with the unrestricted freedom that might jeopardize the wellness of other community members. Although the author argues that liberty is indispensable to promote happiness, he suggests that the society has the responsibility to exercise power over individuals if the primary objective of such control is to prevent harm to others.

Mill (230) indicate that utility is the ultimate appeal in every moral dilemma, but it must be in its broad sense. If persons exercise their liberty in a way that does not cause harm to others, the society may not impose punishments on them without evidence about their offenses. According to the author, the society guarantees different types of liberties that do not apply to all individuals. Despite advocacy to these liberties, there still exists the unqualified. For this reason, Mill (232) postulates that the only necessary form of freedom is the one that allows people to pursue happiness in their own ways as long as they do not compromise the happiness of others. Moreover, such liberties should comprise of impressions that prevent people from impending the happiness of others.

In support of his idea, Mill (232) claims that people become happy when they allow “each other to live as seems good to themselves than by compelling each to live as seems good to the rest” (Mill 232). To optimize happiness, the idea of granting freedom should only apply to people of sane minds. The society must protect children and young adults against their own actions, especially those that could result in self-harm. In this argument, Mill counters the argument that increased freedom would lead to people making bad decisions and killing others (Mill 232).

If the society was to adopt Stuart’s proposals, particular changes would be mandatory. Firstly, the most significant changes would affect the justice systems since criminal laws would change. In such situations, a person would be considered guilty only if he/she impedes others’ pursuit of happiness. In Stuart’s perspective, a civilized society should not compel an individual to do something because people deem it the right thing for themselves or others. Secondly, all the societies would shift to capitalism. Notably, capitalism promotes self-determination, which is essential to promote happiness at individual level. Lastly, the society would set up policies to limit the freedom of young adults and children. These regulations would be vital to protect them from causing harm to themselves and others.

Mill presents his view on how the society should promote happiness. He suggests that freedom can maximize happiness in the society. On the contrary, opponents of this premise contend that freedom would hurt the society, as it can lead to making wrong choices and killing others. In regard to this, Mill claims that freedom should be granted to people of rational minds, and that society should protect the immature against actions that can result in harm. He adds that freedom allowing individuals to follow own interests is crucial to ensuring people are optimally happy. However, communities require changing its laws if they were to adopt Stuart’s proposals

Organizational Behavior in the Workplace


Organization Behavior (OB) is the study of interaction dynamics within groups in a workplace setting. Usually, managers use various concepts of OB to develop more efficient business systems (Huczynski & Buchanan, 2010). The discipline of OB forms a part of management science, which organizations use as a basis for learning and development. Decision-making, problem-solving, conflict-resolution, adaptability, and self-awareness are the key areas of OB that employees can focus on to improve their conduct and workplace performance.

Organization Behavior and Decision Making

Decision-making is the process of selecting alternative course of actions. While one can argue that it is a key managerial function, studies reveal that managers often fail in half of their decisions (Ireland & Miller, 2004). Therefore, in order to maximize employees’ effectiveness at work, managers must ensure that they always make the best decisions in every situation. In this regard, employees can improve their job skills by being pragmatic, which is an act of making practical decisions as opposed to making poor ones (Ireland & Miller, 2004). Thus, when employees make better decisions, they improve their productivity and help steer the organization in the right direction.

Organization Behavior & Conflict Resolution

Conflict-resolution is the process of finding an agreement and a solution (Ireland & Miller, 2004). It is an integral component of OB since conflicts in the workplace are common occurrences. In order to resolve workplace conflicts effectively, managers must possess mediation skills to help the conflicting parties to reach an amicable agreement. In other words, employees with conflict-resolution skills smoothen the working environment.

Organization Behavior and Problem-Solving

According to Huczynski & Buchanan (2010), employees can adopt a 3-step process for improving their personal and team performance. The 3-step model is an elaborate version for achieving rational decisions. The first approach involves defining the problem and its nature. The second step involves using OB concepts to identify the potential causes of the problem. During this stage, one can use OB concepts such as contingency perspective, ethical considerations, and human and social capital (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2010). The last step is offering recommendations and taking appropriate action.

Organization Behavior and Adaptability

            Adaptability is the ability of employees to adjust to new environments and circumstances without losing their competency quality (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2010). Since organizations are dynamic in nature, it is crucial for employees to have adaptability skills in order to continue being productive, even in different circumstances. It is the responsibility of managers to ensure that employees are flexible and adaptable. Such skills enable staff members to seamlessly work in various environments without affecting their overall productivity. Moreover, adaptable employees can execute multiple roles at the same time, hence, increasing their value to the organization.

Organization Behavior and Self-Awareness

            Self-awareness capability enables employees to understand their emotions and their impacts on their daily work routine and on their workmates. Self-awareness is a crucial attribute for employees because it determines other factors such as relationships with customers, productivity, and mental wellbeing (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2010). Therefore, managers must ensure that employees’ temperaments do not affect the work environment. The OB concepts can act as a guide for employees to manage their emotions and channel all their efforts towards achieving organization goals.

How Organization Behavior Helps in Decision-making and Problem-solving

            According to Huczynski and Buchanan (2010), managers can use various OB models to make decisions and solve workplace problems. The OB model incorporates the principles of rational approach to both decision-making and problem-solving processes. First, managers must define the problem in terms of scope and ramifications in order to determine the necessary resources that they need for its resolution. Second, the problem solver must determine the root cause of the issue in terms of historical backgrounds and the possible motive for its occurrence. The last stage is the decision-making phase in which managers must recommend the appropriate course of actions to take in order to resolve the problem.

Consequences of Unethical Behavior in the Workplace

The situation of ethical dilemma occurs when there are two conflicting choices, neither of which resolves a problem in an acceptable manner (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2010). Unethical behavior at the workplace could impact negatively both the employees and the organization. For example, businesses can spend a considerable amount of money to repair reputation damage and settle lawsuits as a result of unethical choices. In addition, employees who propagate unethical behavior can lose their jobs.

In summary, OB is a crucial component of an organization because it governs the actions of employees. Some of the most common habits that have a bearing on OB include decision-making, conflict-resolution, problem-solving, adaptability, and self-awareness. The five behaviors impact both the employee and the organization. Moreover, employees can use the attributes as a platform to increase workplace performance. Specifically, OB comprises of platforms, which managers can use to resolve problems and make organization decisions. Lastly, ethical behaviors can precipitate serious ramifications, both on the business and employees.



Q6). As a manager, would you prefer the people for whom you are responsible to be extrinsically or intrinsically motivated?

I would prefer my workers to be intrinsically motivated. This motivation comes from the inner self. It drives the employee to succeed based on the ambitions and internal goals. Inherently motivated workers can reduce total labor costs. While working with these workers, managers have more time to focus on productive tasks than spending time motivating them. Therefore, an organization needs fewer managers in running the company, thus, reducing the labor costs. Alternatively, the extrinsically motivated workers would increase the labor cost, as the organization would need more supervisors to micro-manage them. On the contrary, intrinsically motivated employees solve problems on their own rather than requiring assistance from their superiors. They tend to strive and achieve the best without guidance and assistance. Moreover, they can take new projects on their own rather than being pushed and guided by supervisors on the mission. In regards to extrinsically motivated workers, they require the manager’s assistance to solve several problems, take new projects, and accomplish it.

Intrinsically motivated staff can be more creative than those who need motivation from external sources. Personnel who thrive on career development and personal achievement are of more value. They innovate and contribute to the overall goal of an organization. These employees can work and bring greater changes in small business industries such as software development, as they come up with brilliant ideas that can lead to rapid growth. Conversely, externally motivated personnel are less creative. They rely on gifts and external sources of work. Once they are not given gifts for motivation, they do not innovate any idea that contributes to the growth of the organization.

Q9) Goal setting can be a difficult system to implement effectively. What kinds of problems might be encountered in attempting to install a goal-setting program in an organization? As a manager, what would you do to minimize the likelihood you would encounter these problems?

One of the problems that might be encountered in attempting to install a goal setting program in an organization is dealing with a person who lacks motivation. Secondly, an employee may be willing to achieve high results but is not ready to undergo the extra mile of working. To encounter these problems, I would make my expectations clear on the job to the management. As the manager of the organization, I would make decisions that align with the firm’s expectations and goals. For instance, I would take the full responsibility for the project and set specific goals for the project. Furthermore, I would break these goals down into concrete action steps and practice envisioning my accomplished goals each day by taking into consideration the most important objectives. I would not fear anything as I would be candid to ask for help in case I face challenges. I would request for and respond to feedback, and persist and never give up.

Q10). Is there a psychological contract between the students enrolled in this course and the instructor? What are some of the specifics of this agreement? How was the deal determined?

There exists a psychological contract between the students enrolled in this course and the instructor. One of the specifics of this deal is excellent communication. There should be an effective way of transmitting ideas from the instructor to the students and vice versa. Secondly, both the instructor and the students should assess their needs and skills appropriately. Thus, they would be able to adjust their anticipation and fit into each other’s program. Thirdly, the students and the instructor should take into consideration dynamic changes. These will improve the learning of students and maintain the psychological contract. Through the good relationship, the student should obey the class rules, respect the teacher, and be active in class. On the contrary, the teacher should prefer for the lesson frequently and respect the students. Both the instructor and the learners should abide by the contract laws for it to work efficiently.



Non-Profit Support


What it does

The Hispanic Federation is a non-profit organization based in New York, Washington D.C, Connecticut and Florida. It is the mother of many organizations that fight for the rights of Latinos in America. The organization advocates for the interests of the Latino people by conducting policy research, public education, and voter mobilization. Additionally, the organization offers social services to families, children, and the youth in the areas of education, economic development, and legal representation (Cordero-Guzmán, 2008). Moreover, the Hispanic Federation continues to fund the organizations under its wing, which advocate for different issues affecting the Hispanic community.


The objective of the Hispanic Federation is to empower and advance the people of the Hispanic community. The organization works with many Latino community based groups that gives it access to the people in need. It has different programs in place such as economic development groups and social organizations that help it achieve its objective.

Its Achievements

The Hispanic Federation has been successful in addressing the problem of grassroots organization in the country (Huntington, 2013). Prior to its establishment, the nation had many community based organization in Spanish-speaking neighborhoods. These organizations advocated for the improvement of communities. However, they received limited funds that could not support their activities. The Hispanic Federation eliminated the isolation of such groups by devising an organizational structure that included affiliated organizations on the board. The move gave them access to additional funds to help their people.

Additionally, the organization has been successful in encouraging economic self-development. The organization underscores the role of economic development in solving the problems of Hispanic people. The organization continues to provide Latino families and youths with financial support to start businesses. It offers financial advice yearly to Latinos to help them expand their activities.

Conrad Hotel

Gap Theory

            The Conrad Hotel is a chain investment managed by Hilton Worldwide. The management aims at improving the delivery of services to all its customers across the world. However, it faces certain challenges such as the Gap Theory, which is the difference between company policies and their implementation by the employees. Conrad Hotel has stern policies that stipulate that the hotel staff should provide quality services to all its customers (Baum, 2016). The theory states that a gap is created when an organization has certain performance standards that it publicly advertises but does not attain them (Meyer & Schwager, 2007). The gap theory affects many hotels in the hospitality industry. In some cases, companies can be sued for not complying with the service criteria they have stated, especially in cases where clients signed contracts and met their end of the deal (Moon & Quelch, 2006).Firms in the hospitality industry should ensure that they eliminate the gap between the service standards they specify and the actual provision of services, and improve their customers’ experience.

The Conrad Hotel has certain quality expectations for each of its aspects to ensure that customers have a good experience. However, certain employees fail to work according to the desired standards. For example, in a hotel in Spain, a customer who spent the night in the hotel was attacked by bedbugs and sued the hotel for negligence. It is company policy that every day room service attendants should clean all beds that hosted guests. The housekeeping department was responsible for the trauma experienced by the guest because they had failed to notice the infestation of bedbugs in the room and remove them in time. The company’s catalogue of services assures the customers the high levels of hygiene and comfort maintained by the hotel. Some employees do not uphold the high standards expected from them, and they end up damaging the hotel’s reputation in the market.

Customer Relationship Management

Customer Relationship Management contains the strategies and practices that organizations use to analyze customer trends throughout the customer lifecycle (Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry, 1985). The relations that clients have with a company highlight whether they have a positive or negative CRM. Managers are solely responsible for the high or low quality of services delivered to their clients, and thus ensuring positive or negative (Jaakkola & Alexander, 2014). The quality of the services delivered by an organization such as the Conrad Hotel is measured based on its ability to meet the expectations of their customers. Managing customer relations is not easy because clients have different preferences, temperaments and expectations. Therefore, a manager should ensure that his or her team is flexible and able to fulfil each customers’ diverse expectations.

The Conrad hotel admits thousands of visitors daily from all parts of the world. As a result, the hospitality department is expected to understand people’s expectations based on their socio-cultural background and be able to offer satisfactory services to all of them. For example, clients have different ways that they would like their food prepared. For instance, some may prefer eating raw vegetables while others may want them steamed (Rahimi & Kozak, 2017). Managers have made sure that visitors’ expectations are met by having a ready team of chefs who regularly take orders and prepare good food.

Additionally, managers should ensure that services in the hotel are offered in a timely manner. Some guests are busy businesspersons on tight schedules. As a result, it would be highly inconvenient for them if some services such as the delivery of food or laundry are delayed, as this might jeopardise their schedules. Such mishaps are not taken well by customers, and they end up rating the hotel poorly on online media platforms, thus affecting the hotel’s reputation. In a nutshell, failure to adhere to the specified standards of customer experience will result in a bad reputation, which will give competitors an upper hand in the industry


Job Analysis for this Role

  1. Explain how you would conduct a job analysis for this role.

I would involve employees by partaking them complete job analysis forms. Equally, I would interview them about their job responsibilities as firefighters. Additionally, I would know the time spent on each task for one week. Moreover, I would observe the firefighters as they carry out their obligations at different times of the day. I would keep track of their activities by taking time into consideration. Later, I would conduct a brief interview with the executive team, supervisors, and loyal customers. Finally, I would analyze the occupation to other duties in the department, and the job grade to determine its place in the pay scale.

  1. Describe a recruiting plan that would create a more diverse workforce.

Stimulating workplace diversity has several benefits. To attain them, first, I would approach the hiring process holistically. I would identify if my workforce resembles the community in which I operate. I would emphasize the concept that retaining employees can be more challenging than enrolling them. I would take more time helping them adjust to the norms at workplace. Secondly, I would ask the staff to refer their friends who have experience in the same field. Additionally, I would offer rewards to fruitful appointments. I would make the profession more gripping to job hunters and emphasize aspects that would entice a more diverse application. Moreover, I would talk to community administrations to help to find new contenders. I would provide different training in my working place. I would ensure that the recruiting process is more transparent to help ease the minds of doubtful employees.

  1. Imagine a position at your company, and you are interviewing candidates to fill this position. Specify three (3) questions that will help you select the best candidate for the job, and provide your rationale for these selections

The position of a C.E.O

  • Give me one word that describes yourself best.

This question is the best way to evaluate the candidates’ character. It shows the aspect that one can consider as a positive side since nobody’s character can be summarized in one word.

  • How do you see the company changing in three years, and how will you contribute to the change?

We want to employ a CEO who thinks about the company s future. We don’t want a leader who handles tasks the same way as every other person. The question will help me to know who have plans for shaping the future of the company.

  • What are your goals?

This question helps me know the motives of the candidate and their inspiration to succeed. When one is aware of the purposes of others, it is easier to relate and grade them.

  1. Read the supplemental materials at the end of the lecture notes related to unconscious bias. Consider the following questions. Post the responses you are comfortable to share and your impressions of this activity.

Select a critical aspect of your background (Personnel Supervision)

The critical aspect of my background is to recognize that I am biased. People should not be ashamed of possessing this character because everyone has a certain degree of biasness. The most important aspect is to handle it professionally.

How does this point of your experience affect your decision making?

If I make decisions when biases are unconscious, they can cause undesirable impacts. Due to preference, I can choose a wrong applicant for a particular post. I may consider the candidate if we share the same interest. It may lead not to hiring potential workers. The biases can cause dramatic, negative impact, and discriminatory behavior towards a particular individual.

How does this background shape your behavior at work?

At work, we may sound more appealing to some people than others, hence, leading to an imbalance in gender and norms. It can prevent employers from accessing the best possible candidates.




Marginalization of African Americans in Health Care, Housing, and Employment


The Atlanta-based Center for Disease Control claims that as of June 2017, about 700 women die during or due to childbirth each year in the United States (“Pregnancy-Related Deaths,” 2017). A discussion of the marginalization of African Americans is not complete without examining historical perspectives. Originally, people of color lived in the vast continent of Africa and other parts of the globe in a dignified manner. Moreover, these ancient societies had in place traditional systems of justice, education, healthcare, and religions. However, upon the arrival of Europeans to this continent, the traditional ways of Africans were deemed as primitive and uncivilized. Ideally, this mental perception programming served as the main precursor for marginalization. After convincing the natives that their cultures were inferior, the natives were forced to adopt foreign mannerisms. Although the colonizers succeeded in altering a well operating society, it came at a cost of lives and resources. The visitors who had better weaponry and divide and rule tactics successfully managed to colonize vast areas of the globe. In the event of a revolution, the outcome was often bloody. Furthermore, the European collaborators made matters worse for the natives. In Sun Tzu’s Art of war, the author describes the various dynamics and tactical approaches in rebellion. According to Tzu, the cost of war in terms of life and resources determines whether the fight is tenable. In the ancient African context, the European colonialists waged a war against an unaware opponent. Despite significant progress in social justice processes, marginalization of Africans in the United States persists in the healthcare, housing, and employment sectors.


Marginalization in the United States is usually associated with minority groupings, such as people of color, immigrants, LGBT, women, and those with disabilities. Alternatively, privileges in the society are linked with the white population and people of European origin. The common areas, which are rife with disparities in the country, include education, healthcare, housing, and employment. The problem of inequalities within the society emanated from historical events, such as slavery, colonialism, wars, and racial discrimination. These atrocities diminish human dignity and, consequently, their self-esteem and worth. Undignified people act in manner that perpetuates negative stereotypes in the society; for example, the high rate of crime in black neighborhoods is stereotypically linked with the violent and rebellious nature of this race. However, insecurity, education, poverty, and inaccessibility to basic amenities promote these vices. This crime link in the African American community is associated with housing problems in this society. While the real estate prices for predominantly black neighborhoods are lower than other locations, the demand is relatively low. Because of the low demand for housing projects within these zones, investors shy from development projects in such areas. Despite tenable progress achieved by the civil rights activism, there is a vast gap between whites and blacks. The reasons presented for segregation in housing between the racial divide stems from political leadership, market mobility, and biases, which may be intentional or unintentional. During President Obama’s tenure, it was expected that the livelihoods of minorities would improve. Nevertheless, in 2017, the gap between African Americans and their white counterparts is still wide. Many barriers that the blacks face are a result of racial injustice and inequality emanating from historical events. According to Journal by Riphagen in the year 2008 ”Marginalization of African-Americans in the Social Sphere of US Society” the gentrification projects in black neighborhoods was a bias towards the people of color, as it led to school inequality, environmental hazards, and inferior healthcare (Riphagen 100). The problem of residential segregation resonates with the development projects of the 1970’s. For young black millennial, a segregated community is cloaked by technology. Residential segregation was conceived as a public policy to address specific groupings. There are four major characteristics of residential segregation. The first contributor is zoning ordinances across the U.S cities. Secondly, there is poor transport network in black neighborhoods. Thirdly, African Americans and other minority homebuyers and renters receive different treatment from realtors and agents. Finally, black Americans continue to be denied home loans at affordable credit.

Healthcare Inequality

The most important aspect of healthcare is not necessarily the quantity but rather an increased access to quality healthcare. The equality of healthcare delivery in the country can be explained using the morbidity and mortality gaps between the blacks and the whites. As a developed country, the United States healthcare system is quite low and expensive in comparison with countries of similar economic standings; for instance, infant mortality level is high and, at times, worse than that of the developing nations. Moreover, the number of children who die before attaining the age of five for blacks is double than that for the whites. Some of the factors attributed for this scenario include maternal education and income. The disparity is so glaring that infant mortality is higher for the well-educated middle class African Americans than lowly educated whites. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2), the disparities in life expectancy persists to adulthood (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2). In fact, African Americans have the shortest survival chances of all the minority races. Racial inequities and education gaps among races are the major contributors of the health outcomes. This exemplifies in the fact that college graduate white men live on average 14.2 and 10.3 years more than black men and women with less than a high school education (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2). Smith on the other hand asserts that, racial segregation in terms of housing means that health facilities are disproportionately distributed in the country (Smith 1699). Hospitals in black neighborhoods are underfunded with poor technology, trained staff, and clinicians. The most highly trained professionals serve predominately white populations. Because of wealth disparities between the two races, fewer blacks are referred for specialized treatments, preventive care, kidney and bone transplant, and fewer life-prolonging drugs for the treatment of chronic conditions, such as HIV and mental disorders are recommended. The health gap in the U.S. can be explained by five causes. The first cause is unintended racial discrimination or implicit bias in medical care. Secondly, social determinants, such as work, life, and play affect access to clean, safe and affordable food, water, and environments. Medical care solely accounts for only 10 % of health outcomes. On the contrary, social and environmental factors (20 %), genetics (30 %), and behavior (40 %) all have a greater influence on health than health care. Housing inequities between whites and blacks is the third factor that contributes to the health outcome of a population. The disparities in housing conditions shape the health behaviors of the inhabitants. The final health issue outcome identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report is crime and law enforcement (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1).


In recent times, career promotion is not as widely pegged on educational qualification. This can be exemplified from the fact that more women enrollment in colleges surpasses that of their male counterparts. However, Riphagen suggest that the situation is not replicated in the labor market (Riphagen 101). Moreover, women in similar position earn lesser salaries than the male colleagues with similar qualifications. The scenario of women resonates with that of blacks in the employment sector. Since universal education became available, more African Americans improved their skills in institutions of higher learning. However, majority remain in the proletariat class because of the social injustices. In “Who Really Cares? The Disenfranchisement of African American Males in Pre K-12 schools: A Critical Race Theory Perspective,” Howard explains that the minimum wage income earners cannot access quality healthcare, education, and housing (Howard 960). Therefore, the odds of a successful career are stuck against the blacks in comparison to both the male and female white population.


The marginalization of African American communities in the United States emanates from historical socio-economic factors that persist in the contemporary world. Racial discrimination, segregation, unlawful persecution and execution by police dominate the American system. The greatest sectors under threat for achieving equity are health, education, healthcare, and housing. These factors are important for improving the quality of life and sustaining human dignity. Without the respect for the sanctity of life and dignity of all humans, equality cannot be attained. There is a need to maintain strong agency leadership, integrate working groups, and fully implement executive order 12898 on environmental justice. Although some progress has been attained in the society, more needs to be done to close the persistent disparity gap between the blacks and the whites. It is with the above in view that the activism for equity must continue as presently witnessed in the NFL.



Movie Theater Descriptive Essay

A movie theater is a high traffic place that offers me with an opportunity to describe the five senses of sight, taste, sound, touch, and smell that I experienced (Troyka and He 323). I still remember my first visit to a movie theater when I was young. My uncle took her daughter and me to a local theater during one weekend to watch a movie that had been advertised on billboard for a week. As we approached the cinema hall, the poster adjacent to the entrance attracted my attention. The poster, which was vibrant with beautiful colors, depicted the main actors of the movie. Slightly above the portrait of the actors was a brightly colored title of the film, which contrasted with the black background of the poster.
At the entrance of the hall, people were queuing to obtain tickets at the final hour. However, since most of the people had acquired their tickets earlier, only a few were lucky to secure the remaining seats. The theater personnel at the entrance turned down the unlucky people. As we entered the theater, I noticed the jovial mood of the few people who had already entered the hall. Some people spoke and laughed at their jokes while others sat down and waited patiently for the movie to begin.
I could smell the lingering aroma of cooked popcorn through the entire room. Likewise, a pleasant sugary smell filled the area near the soda dispenser. Nonetheless, I did not fail to notice the sweet smell of candy and chocolate in the hall. As we passed the counter, my uncle bought three popcorn bags and candies for each of us and led the way to the front row at the furthest corner of the theater. The candy was smooth and sweet and the popcorn felt greasy. Even though the candy melted between my fingertips, making them sticky, I enjoyed its soft feeling. When we entered the theatre, it was almost empty. However, the audience started occupying the seats gradually. At first, the people arrived in twos, then in small groups, and finally in large numbers. Within a short time, the theater hall was full to its capacity.
Young, old, rich, men, and women engaged in joyous conversations as they waited for the film to begin. For a few minutes, I marveled at the sight of audience before the ringing of the bell and the rising of the curtains for the movie to commence. As I looked at the hall, I noticed the beautiful cushions on the seats. The black and white color patterns used for the seats were appealing to the eye. Likewise, the theater’s air-conditioner worked excellently, cooling the hall and creating a serene environment for the audience. In addition, the fluorescent lit the hall in a moonlight effect that amplified the harmony of the theater. As the movie begun, some people started licking their candies and others ate the popcorns, bit by bit.
When the movie ended, the lights of the hall relit the room and people started leaving the theater. As we walked out, I noticed that the floor was not as clean as we found it when we were arriving. Bags of popcorns filled the floor and in some places, people had spilled candy on the seats. Notably, the emotion of excitement was evident on the faces of the people when they arrived at the theater. However, after the end of the show, the faces of the people depicted mixed emotions. Some people walked out silently, contemplating on the movie while others talked to each other loudly concerning the parts that appealed to them. Indeed, the experience was excellent and left me yearning to visit more theaters in the future.

Workers Union and Collective Bargaining

According to Bertola (2014), a union is an employee’s organization in which a group of workers joins together to advocate for an improvement of their working conditions and levels of compensation. Additionally, workers in a union have a higher chance to achieve fairness and respect in the job. The employers have recognized that dialogue is the best way to resolve problems in the workplace. Unionized workers have more power to gain protection and to make a positive impact in the workplace.

The Process That Employees Will Use To Unionize

The employees have to follow a specific process to form and join in a union. Firstly, the workers will have to understand their legal rights to form a union. The members will identify the organizing committee for all the major departments. Most importantly, the committee members will educate themselves and the coworkers about the significance of the union.

Secondly, the committee will gather information on the issues that affect the workers and the strategies to improve their well-being (Bertola, 2014). The committee members will have to gather information about the workplace structure such as the working areas, shifts, and the various departments. Most importantly, the participants will find effective models to contact the workers, thus, the need to gather information on the employee’s names, phone contact, and job title. Therefore, the members will have to look for sources of funds to facilitate the activities involved in forming a union.

Thirdly, the committee will develop a program on the union’s demands. The members will have to support the program through signing of the membership cards and hold an election. The participants will use the signed cards to petition with the federal labour board on the need to hold a union election. Because the labour board might take several weeks to assess the people who are eligible to vote, the participants must continue with the campaigns for the union.

Lastly, the employees will have to win a strong union contract. After a certification of the union, the employer will have to negotiate in good faith and obtain a legally binding contract that covers all the employment aspects. The workers will have to work in collaboration to propose on the changes that they want with the employer.

How Collective Bargaining Deliver Improvements for Workers in the Organization

According to Katz, Kochan, and Colvin (2017), the workers in a union use collective bargaining to empower the co-workers towards their advancement. Notably, the employees can negotiate for either better wages or improvement of the working conditions. The union members can negotiate with the employers to reach a mutually beneficial agreement. As a result, the employers can improve the levels of safety for the workers and promote flexible working hours. Additionally, the union members can use collective bargaining agreements to form a favorable pension plans for the employees.

What a Union Has To Consider Regarding a State’s Right to Work Laws

The United States government has introduced the “Right-to Work” law to prevent employers and workers union from entering into contracts that only hires the unionized employees. For this reason, the workers benefits from the union contract without having to pay union fees (Katz et al., 2017). The union committee have to consider the legal defense foundation and avoid compelling the workers to join a union. Notably, the union committee have to consider the workers who would anticipate on joining a union and fail to pay the membership fee. However, the union might have to operate with insufficient funds and few members.