Essay 1: Causes of Wars and Conflicts
More than 40 percent of the third-world nations have suffered the ravages of wars at varying intensities. Political, social, and economic inequalities between various groups culminate in disagreements and wars. Notably, wars have adverse effects on social and economic development in nations. Beside wealth disparities, conflicts in any society occur due to cultural aspects linked to religions or ethnic backgrounds. To foster social growth, members of communities should consider executing measures that mitigate conflict and war amongst groups.
Firstly, researchers highlight economic, social, and political inequalities as the primary causes of war in communities. Differences in economic resources may result in extreme poverty. Those subjected to poverty have reduced access to state services, and this might cause conflict. The low-income group may then become belligerent towards the rich due to unfair wealth distribution. For example, studies cite poverty as one of the primary factors that led to war in Rwanda.
Secondly, changes in relations among parties can cause conflicts and war in the society. Those on good terms have specific expectations on treatment accorded to each other. Changes in these expectations could trigger war. The concept of Social Contract can explain this phenomenon. According to this principle, stability depends on the relationship between people and their governments. People conform to the orders of the state so that the latter can provide services for them. Frustrations with the ruling government can lead to war.
Fortunately, various policies can reduce the occurrence of war in societies. Firstly, leaders should address inequalities in societies and focus on development agendas. In doing so, they can curb war that emanates from intergroup conflicts over the distribution of resources. Secondly, governments should seek strategies to include the participation of people in the government, particularly in minorities. The majority may oppress the minority groups, thus, increasing probability of wars due to disagreements between some factions and the government.
Conclusively, society leaders should acknowledge the major causes of war and potential methods to avoid them. Economic, political, and economic inequalities are the primary triggers of conflict. Organizational leaders should promote equality in the distribution of resources to prevent wars.
Essay 2 Transitional Justice
Wars and human rights violations have occurred in various nations across the world. When the conflicting parties resolve their differences, they require adopting plans to address crimes that occur in the course of the war. Transitional justice is relevant in such scenarios, as it determines the stability of such communities after resolving their conflicts. Notably, transitional justice refers to the manner in which societies emerging from wars can address systematic human rights issues that are beyond jurisdictions of the normal justice system. There should be adequate mechanisms to achieve transitional justice.
Different measures to achieve transitional justice may involve criminal prosecutions of the major perpetrators of war. The second method is to provide reparations to the victims of human rights violation. Nations may consider reforming laws and institutions, including judiciary, military, and police. Lastly, the “truth-seeking” approach can be utilized to accomplish transitional justice. In this method, non-judicial agencies assist in investigating human rights abuse cases.
It is important to note that the effectiveness of these measures in facilitating transitional justice varies from one situation to another. Firstly, the reforms agency is one of the most effective means of facilitating transitional justice because it promotes accountability while preventing recurrence of the problem. Although it is expensive to implement, reparation initiatives are effective in addressing human rights violations.
Conclusively, transitional justice is essential to sustaining peace in societies emerging from wars. However, it is crucial to choose the best approach to realize transitional justice. Despite the efficiency of reforms measures in promoting accountability for violent war crimes, nations should consider executing reparation measures when possible. Such measure encourages reconciliation and peace after conflicts are over.
Essay 3: America as an Empire
America has already achieved the status of an empire. Like other empires in world history, America is the most influential state with the strongest army. It seeks to address social, economic, and political concerns emerging in nations worldwide. Conversely, America plays a significant role in maintaining peace and stability in the world. The country resolves matters that jeopardize not only the lives of American citizens, but also communities around the world. Therefore, America is an empire since it has significant similarities with the great historic empires.
The state of being an empire might not be beneficial for America since it may be not ready to assume its responsibilities as the dominant superpower. Before focusing on global matters, the nation should address all internal issues affecting its stability. For example, the country should address the issue of inequality among the American communities before venturing to resolve this issue on a global scale.
Besides, America is preoccupied with initiatives aimed to advance its military and weaponry further. Focusing on this issue detracts the nation from efforts to resolve internal conflicts. In doing so, the American leadership increases chances of conflict between state and community interests. Such a scenario could result in war and subsequent fall of the empire.
In conclusion, American has attained the status of an empire, although at an inopportune time. The nation has developed significantly to become the most powerful state of the world. However, the tendency of the government to focus on global affairs may cause the country to fail. The nation’s leaders should seek to enhance fairness and equity amongst its population.