The Happiness of Pursuit

 

Question One

The authors utilize various research methods at investigating the happiness pursuit. One of these used approaches includes a literature review. In this type of research design, investigators collect data from the existing literature on the concerned issue. In so doing, the investigator can determine the findings of the previous researchers and examine research gaps. For instance, the authors rely on Morelli and Liberman’s study, which found that people operating at cognitive load have low empathy reactions, with neural activity down across four different brain regions. Although researchers widely acknowledge literature review as one of the best methods to conduct a study, they highlight both its benefits and setbacks.

One of the benefits of literature review design is that it allows investigators to assess the current state of a topic. Secondly, it can assist a researcher to evaluate the position of experts on specific issues. Thirdly, literature review methods ensure researchers determine study methods that previous investigators utilized. Nevertheless, sole dependence on these methods limits investigators to problems that previous researchers have examined. Secondly, the use of outdated literature could mislead investigators. Secondly, the authors have used surveys in their study. The writers have further referred to different survey findings and questionnaires. Additionally, the authors conducted surveys to determine whether or not people improve their level of happiness after spending time with friends on social media.

The use of surveys in research studies is beneficial to investigators in various ways. Firstly, the approach is free from various types of errors and bias. Secondly, they are cost-effective and easy for researchers to administer. Investigators can mitigate or avoid geographical dependence through the use of surveys. However, experts relate the approach with different flaws, including potential bias when the respondents are unwilling to participate and reduced reliability when respondents lack awareness on some responses. Thirdly, the authors utilize correlational studies to investigate their research question. In this study design, scholars seek to determine the views of different groups of people on a particular matter. For example, the study uses this approach to assess the effects of social media use between republicans and democrats.

One of the benefits of this design is that it helps researchers to reveal particular relationships between different groups. Secondly, it provides an opportunity to researchers to determine areas that need efforts. Moreover, it offers some of the best results to those investigating a particular phenomenon. However, the approach does not provide information on causes of existing relationship. For example, the authors cannot explain why Democrats’ experiences on social media are better than that of Republicans.

Question Two

From the various charts and graphical representations, the audience can make different conclusions on matters related to optimism and pessimism. One of the conclusion is that in 2004, people were more likely than 2013 to cope up with frustrations in life. The study presents responses of people on the prompt “Do you consider yourself an optimist or a pessimist? According to the author’s report, it is evident that the number of pessimists and optimists decreased dramatically in 2004 and 2013. On the contrary, the number of people who are in between optimism and pessimism increased with a big margin. Since pessimists often expect worse results in their various endeavors, they are more likely than optimists to adapt to an environment that is shifting from desirable to undesirable experiences.

Consequently, a reduction in the number of pessimists and optimists implies that a high number of people will be unable to cope up with challenges of the dynamic society. Secondly, a reader can conclude that social media profiles could be used to recognize users’ behaviors and personalities. The study represents survey results on the question “Do you believe your social media profile represents what you are?” The author describes survey results in the diagram below. According to the results, it is clear that most people believe that social-media profiles reflect users’ personalities.

Fig 1.1: shows survey results on people’s view of social media (Gibson and Kharunya part 2)

Thirdly, readers can conclude that people consider some types of activities as means to improve their moods. According to the researcher, prayers have become essential determinants of mood. While most people ate food to adjust their attitudes in 2004, most of the people in 2013 were mediating to intervene about their moods.

Question Three

Lieberman and Morelli set out to investigate people’s reaction when they are looking at other people’s sad or happy images. The researchers set up an experiment in which the participants were supposed to look at good and sad photos. To distract the participants focus on the images, they assigned each of them with eight digits number to memorize. They found reduced empathies in people who were distracted by the number.

On the contrary, volunteers with unrefined brains processed the images quicker than other participants. The authors highlight different psychological and physiological processes that influence emotional reactions. Firstly, they investigated the influence of memory processes expressing empathy. Secondly, cognitive processes affect people’s compassion towards others. Physiologically, distractions prevent people from showing empathy, as they interfere with psychological processes. For this reason, it is apparent that an individual who is engaged in other cognitive tasks cannot express deep sympathy during sad times.

According to Lieberman and Morelli, both physiological and psychological functions have significant implications for empathetic responses. The experiment revealed that although brain processes disturb the level of an individual’s empathic response, other factors may interfere with these operations. From another dimension, both physiological and psychological factors upset persons’ emotional responses but at varying levels. Different parts of the brain may be required to collaborate in performing a particular task. Subsequently, the numbers of mental processes taking place in human’s brain could affect the effectiveness of people’s emotional reactions. The author has utilized these views to support arguments on happiness.

Question Four

Readers should acknowledge Morelli’s quote as it has critical civic implications. Civic engagement relates to individuals’ ability to participate in civic actions including community services and initiatives in order to improve the public sphere. The quote illustrates the author’s understanding of the empathy that is an essential human emotion affecting their conduct in the society. In his quote, the author underscores the importance of focus in promoting civic engagements.

People who lack focus on public concerns may fail to respond per expectations of others. Any type of physiological response makes it difficult for people to meet civic engagement goals. Such a situation occurs due to people’s inability to illustrate empathy when necessary. When in public or with people, it is essential to concentrate on the matter of interests to avoid distractions. In fact, the quote suggests that physiological process can hurt the quality of the responses triggered by psychological processes. More importantly, mitigating disturbances when addressing public concerns can improve the level of happiness in people.

It is important to note the significance of empathy in political situations. When there are tensions within a state, leaders should express compassion and empathy to the affected families. Failure to communicate this emotion could have an adverse impact particularly for a politician, who wants to remain in the political scene for long. Besides, the empathy could determine the nature of public relations that an organization seeks to sustain or build. For this reason, it is apparent that appropriate emotional responses in matters of public concerns are fundamental to good leadership.

The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter

 

The f-35 joint strike fighter program is the U.S largest defense plan with substantial costs on the taxpayer. The U.S. leads the program with assistance from the U.K., Denmark, Turkey, Italy, Canada, Netherlands, and Australia. The program promises to manufacture three variants of F-35 fighter crafts for the marine, air force, and navy. The new aircraft will have significant advancements in military abilities. Similar to other high tech programs, the developers have surpassed the original budget, and they have put the plan behind schedule with more than seven years. Developers have put measures to ensure that the craft is “stealthy” or “low-observable” (Charette 4). Such a characteristic ensures enemies do not detect the aircraft, making it difficult for enemies to attack during wars.

The Development Model for the F-35

The F-35 fighter is supposed to surpass the abilities of any other fighter craft in the world so that it provides the U.S. with immunity from potential attacks. To equip the plane with all the properties that the client has requested, the responsible developers should have a model to guide them through the development procedure. A reliable model should describe the complete process from product development to consumption and feedback from the consumers. Engineers should develop the model in a way that reflects an improvement on the already existing fighters. The process of inventing a development model for F35 comprises of the following steps:

The first stage is to perform an opportunity scan. At this stage, Lockheed Martin should focus on checking improvement opportunities for the previous fighters. At this stage, the manufacturer needs to investigate with regard the abilities of potential F-35 competitors, particularly the Russia’s T-50 and China’s J-31 stealth fighters. It should be more effective than its potential adversaries in terms of maneuverability, air-air lethality, and its overall performance in all terrains. Moreover, the product should have adequate stealth capabilities to succeed at its war missions. To have these abilities, the product will have sophisticated information systems that would allow the operators to observe the environment and detect threats.

The ability of the craft to remain undetected provides soldiers with an opportunity for “first look, first shot, and first kill” (Charette 6). Besides, the F-35 variants should be customized according to expected fighting environments. The F-35 option for the Navy will have the abilities to take off on short distances and land vertically. Therefore, it should have nozzles that protrude to the wings and fans behind the cockpit. Regarding the engine design, the fighter will provide interchangeable engine option to boost its performance levels.

The second stage would be concept testing. The manufacturer should provide the customers with a detailed description of the product so that they contribute their views and assess their attitudes on the same. Lockheed Martin needs to communicate the benefits and attributes of F-35 for the consumer to determine its relevance and ability to serve the intended purposes. The builders should compare the F-35 concept to its potential rivals do decide whether or not the product has leverage over competitors.

Prototype Development, Test, and Launch

In the prototype development stage, Lockheed Martin should focus on preparing F35 in a way that demonstrates the ability of the craft resolving the client’s problem. The project leaders should examine and proof product concepts, which should be relayed to the development team, managers, and sponsors. The development team should actualize the product concepts per the client requests. Upon development, both the project team and the consumer should test the prototype abilities to perform according to the manufacturer’s promises. If the builders adhere to the proposed model, the Pentagon as the program sponsor should prefer F-35 to other fighters due to its benefits. If the product is free from operational flaws, the maker should organize a launching date.

Recommendations

On its development cycle, the project team seeks to equip F-35 with unprecedented stealth mode capabilities. Consequently, the fighter will have approximately 8, 000, 000 lines of software codes. The feature allow the plane to perform five times better than the top 5 word’s fifth-generation fighters. However, the complex information system comes at a cost. The avionics system on the craft’s system may present particular development risks, as the developers have not used such a complex system before.

Proposal #1: The Company should not launch the craft before the builders become acquainted with large-scale implementation of avionics system in the plane. Effectiveness in installing the system could be accomplished after the manufacturer successfully deploys a high number of these systems correctly.

Proposal #2: The Company should work together with the builders of F35 predecessors in resolving the software issues. The F22 development team encountered significant software issues with the same avionics system. Lockheed Martins should share experiences with F-22 developers to address the problems within an acceptable period.

Proposal #3: Lockheed Martins should form a team of professionals in all the manufacturing sites to allow bug fixes to the software. The team should continue on the tasks post-delivery to improve reliability by eliminating potential instances of software failure.

The F-35 joint strike fighter development will have significant cost on taxpayers. Despite the functional and budgetary challenges that Lockheed Martins has faced, the program should proceed because the product would allow the U.S. to maintain its control over the world as the superpower. The U.S. should focus on matters of self-defense, as it is necessary to protect its citizens from potential cases of attacks. Thus, the U.S. may spend billions of money on the development of such weapons systems.

 

Organizational Behavior

 

Every agency has a manager who presides over decisions to enhance its performance. Some of the significant management roles include planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. On planning, managers define organizational goals, determine appropriate corporate strategies, and develop plans to coordinate activities. Besides, they monitor employee activities to guarantee that an organization accomplishes its mission within a reasonable time frame (Latham & Erez, 2016). Due to the influence of employees in determining organizational success, managers perceive leadership as one of the most critical roles in an agency. They have the responsibilities to monitor, motivate, and direct employees. Subsequently, leaders should have a good understanding of organizational behavior to optimize workforce reliability.

In this context, an organization refers to a team of people working together to accomplish common goals. To achieve these goals, an agency requires employee inputs either at the individual level or as a group. Organizational behavior refers to the systematic study and application of knowledge concerning how people act within corporate settings (Robbins & Judge, 2013). Although organizational behavior mostly refers to an individual’s behavior in the workplace, the topic should include the conduct of individual employees without necessarily involving the organization itself. Equally, a person may study an organization itself without involving the influence of the workers. Nevertheless, an individual should examine both pieces of the issue to understand the whole.

Fig 1.1. The figure illustrates factors that influence human behavior in organiations (Latham & Erez, 2016).

It is essential to understand that a member of an organization does not work without influence, as the environment surrounding the structure may affect his/her performance. Every member of a team has unique characteristics, which the organization leaders must consider when assigning team roles (Latham & Erez, 2016). Due to the complexities involved in organizational behavior management, experts have come up with theories to help managers in maneuvering challenges that emerge in the field. Some of the approaches towards organizational behavior include the following:

Human Resources Approach

Human resources deal with the employment and development of an individual members regarding creativity and competency. Personnel in charge of human resources must address these issues because employees play a crucial role in organizational success. The approach is critical to assist employees in developing to responsible members of an organization. For example, a human resource manager should develop a training program to optimize the relevance of employees in an organization (Robbins & Judge, 2013). Besides, a training program allows employees to create a climate that encourages and motivates them to work. At times, people refer human resources approach as a supportive strategy because a manager changes his/her role from controlling employees to enhancing the quality of their professional lives.

Contingency Strategy

A contingency approach relates the idea that every situation requires different behavioral practices for an organization to address presenting concerns. For this reason, a human resources manager should invent new ways of resolving organizational problems rather than depend on traditional models. Nevertheless, a manager should examine every problem keenly to assess the potential of the planned measures in improving the situation. The benefit of contingency approach is that that it provides managers with adequate time to investigate a case before implementing a decision. Besides, managers who consider contingency approaches often exploit current information about the concerned field before planning for potential problem remedies. In so doing, they improve organizations’ opportunity to run their tasks smoothly.

Productivity Approach

Regarding productivity approach, human resource managers tend to compare investments that an organization makes on employees with their benefits to the organization. Mostly, human resource managers measure both the input and output of an individual in terms of financial resources (Miner, 2015). An employee becomes useful to a team whenever his/her output increases despite a constant input value. Managers utilize motivational theories to boost employee productivity and efficiency.

Systems Approach

In this case, managers perceive a system as an interrelated part of an agency that links all entities of interest to the organization. Besides, these parties must act as a whole to fulfil the mission of the concerned society (Wagner III & Hollenbeck, 2014). An organization’s structure provides for the coordination of various tasks that are vital to expansion of every organization. Moreover, the system perspective of organizational behavior focuses on the interactions within a firm and the broader environments that may include economic, cultural, social, and political context, in which a company operates. Importantly, organizations depend on their environments as sources of human labor, money, and raw materials.

Emerging Trends in Organizational Behavior

Customized Employee Experience

The dynamism of work environments require organizational managers to lay down measures necessary to cater to the new environmental demands. One of the emerging trends relates to customizing employee experiences at the workplace. Organizations are encouraging policies that aim to treat employees according to their preferred lifestyle and ambitions (Luthans F., Luthans, B, & Luthans, K, 2015). Subsequently, lifestyle recognition, self-expression, and ethics have gained priority over employee pay and promotion. For this reason, every human resource manager should acknowledge the key drivers of employee engagement to survive in respective industries.

Shift in the Perception of Future Workforce

Presently, work environments are changing as a result of changes in technological advancements, demographics, and economics. The future workforce will be highly diverse, and employees would stay longer in their professions (Miner, 2015). Experts in the field anticipate a multicultural workforce in future agencies due to increasing demographic diversity. Improved economies have resulted in shifts towards service jobs while some organizations have become highly flexible due to the emerging technologies that allow employees to work remotely. These changes present both opportunities and challenges in organizational behavior management.

Ethics

Work ethics is one of the trends shaping organizational behavior. Most of the organizations have adopted a code of ethics for both the employees and administration officials. Codes of ethics determine how employees should conduct themselves in different work situations. The movement has critical implications for organizational leaders. They should have abilities to distinguish ethical from unethical conducts (Latham & Erez, 2016). Organizations that portray ethical behavior in the workplace may have a competitive leverage over firms with poorly implemented code of ethics. Other trends concern the globalization strategies, employee engagement, and the role of information technology in organizational behavior.

Organizational behavior is one of the vital concepts that focus on employee behavior within an organization. Human resource managers should have a good understanding of organizational behavior so that they align employees with organizational goals. They should create a conducive work environment to allow the development of employee at a professional level. Notably, managers should keep updated on the trends that shape employee behavior and performance. Information about employee needs would be beneficial to organizations with intentions to build employee loyalty.

 

Reading Response on Poverty

Reading Response on Poverty

Poor people in America do not stand a chance in the current economic setup in the country. Legislators pass laws and regulations that worsen the problem. The housing policies that legislators passed have pushed low income families into neighborhoods with low performing schools and colleges. Additionally, the wages of poor people have stagnated in the face of rising inflation. Children from poor communities are not prepared to face the world from affluent families. The only way of ending poverty in the country is increasing employee wages and providing financial support to single mothers. However, the government has ignored pleas by the poor. Therefore, the only way of forcing the government to act on these changes is organizing civic movements in the country.

To begin with, a civil rights movement for the poor would force the government to enact favorable laws. An active civil rights movement would force legislators to introduce policies that ensure an increment in the wages of poor workers. According to Edelman, “wages for those who work on jobs in the bottom half have been stuck since 1973” (2). People with low paying jobs cannot take their children to the best schools in the country. Moreover, they cannot access quality healthcare the same way like the rich. Edelman reveals that “there’s been growth, a lot of it, but it has stuck at the top” (6). Civil rights groups can use their influence to ensure that this money trickles down to the people on the ground.

Additionally, civil rights movements could call for the creation of a Fair Housing Act that could limit exclusionary practices by municipalities. These practices make it difficult for poor people to live in communities with better social amenities. Such movements can force the government to allow developer build apartments for both the poor and the wealthy. Such a move would ensure that low income families have access to quality education and healthcare services.

Moreover, civil rights groups can ensure that the government creates a safety net for poor single mothers in the country. In the past, through lobbying by civil rights groups, the government introduced the welfare program. It enhanced the income for single mothers and their children. Today, these groups of people do not receive support. In states where the program is in operation, “many states actually reduced the size of their rolls and lowered benefits to those in greatest need”(5).

Finally, economic segregation of schools in poor neighborhoods hinders their efforts to provide quality education. These schools deserve adequate funding from the government to carry out its activities smoothly. They need to build classrooms, purchase books, and hire teachers. Civil rights movements can force the government to introduce magnet theme schools in these neighborhoods. Additionally, these movements can lobby for the sponsorship of children from low income families to tertiary institutions.

Poverty is like the sun and every time a person hope for a better future, he or she loses it to a poverty equation. Employees report to their places of work on a daily basis and put more effort to earn more from morning to the evening. At the end of the month, their salaries only settles debts and bills. What remains cannot cater for their basic needs. In fact, they do not have much to deposit in a savings account. In the morning, they wake up and repeat the same routine.

 

Analysis of Unintended Pregnancy and Abortion

Unwanted teenage pregnancies and cases of abortion have significantly increased over the recent past. Parents and guardians can take various measures to reduce the numerous risks that young girls encounter while trying to terminate their early pregnancies. The research process was qualitative because the essay mainly contains more reasons and few numerical statistics.

In the research of teenage pregnancies, the authors of the sources wrote related information in that they provided solutions to the growing incidences of abortions. Despite the fact that the two sources are from contrasting authors, the information in both articles are similar. For example, Secura et al. wrote one of the two sources while the other is from a US based academic organization comprised of professionals in the field of gynecology. As a result, the essay contains valid information regarding unintended pregnancies and abortion from different types of sources.

The essay relies on information from the sources to provide readers with an insight of the health hazards associated with abortions among young girls. Additionally, the work enlightens the audience about the various stakeholders who should act by improving the health of young girls who find themselves in the difficult situations. The authors of the sources wrote information in an argumentative style, which aim at advocating against abortions. Additionally, the ideas presented highlight the need for parents, guardians, teachers, and health workers to educate adolescents about the importance of contraceptives. The aim of the essay is to discourage the use of any contraceptive among the young people. Another purpose is to enlighten the readers about the benefits of sex education to growing teenagers. Most young girls who become pregnant lack useful information. Parents and guardians are mostly responsible to educate their teenage sons and daughters regarding the risks of unwanted pregnancies. Therefore, the task of responsibility is not only among the teenagers, but also the parents.

As the author, I used various rhetorical strategies to highlight the major points and make them more convincing. Firstly, the selection of the topic is to make a stand as the author. It is important to state in the opening paragraph that unwanted pregnancies may distort the future plans of teenage girls. Besides, they undergo multiple dangers when they opt for abortion. As the author, one strategy I used in the essay is to provide relevant information to the appropriate audience. Parents and teachers who fail to provide sex education to teenagers usually subject the youngsters to experimentation and unprotected sex that may lead to unwanted pregnancies. The essay aims at educating the audience, parents and caregivers, about the dangers of sexual relations and abortions. Additionally, it provides awareness on the measures that the stakeholders can take to protect young girls.

The strategies are crucial since they give the reader a clear understanding of the topic and practical ways of applying them. An author who writes a persuasive essay should explain the points clearly so that the audience can fully understand his or her thoughts. Additionally, the writer should provide a number of facts and figures as is the case with the essay, which gives readers a clearer image of the degree in which the research phenomenon is affected. Additionally, it creates a sense of professionalism and makes the essay appear factual.

Impression of the Video

Questions

  1. What was your impression of the video A Family Gathering?

In my opinion, American Experience: A family Gathering is wonderful documentary based on three generations of a Japanese American family (Yasui 3: 13). After the Yasui family settles in Oregon, the neighbors recognize them as respectable figures in the community. However, they were later sent to internment camps after the community members deemed that they were potentially dangerous aliens.

  1. Do you think Lise Yasui effectively interweaves personal family history with the broader history of the Japanese American internment in her film?

Yes, I deem that Lise Yasui interweaves the history of the family with the internment of Japanese American. The director further explores the imprisonment of the family members in the internment camps during the Second World War (Yasui 2: 14). Similarly, the United States government forced the Japanese Americans to evacuate their homes and seek for refuge in the internment camps.

  1. In what specific ways do you think the internment violated the rights of Japanese Americans during WWII?

The United States government violated the rights of the Japanese Americans in various ways. For instance, the internment resulted in racial segregation against the Japanese Americans. Additionally, the American government denied the Japanese Americans the freedom of speech (Nishihara 44). In fact, English was the sole language for use during meetings, while the government prohibited the use of Japanese language. Furthermore, the Japanese Americans lacked a legal representative and, thus, could not access a fair trial as compared to the Americans.

  1. Why were some Japanese Americans in Oregon given the option to relocate to Eastern Oregon instead of being imprisoned internment camps?

During the Second World War, the American government gave a half of the Japanese Americans an option to relocate to Eastern Oregon to avoid overcrowding in the internment camps.

  1. Were you surprised to find out that two-thirds of the people of Japanese descent sent to internment camps were American citizens?

Yes, I was surprised to realize that two thirds of the people living in the internment camps were American because I thought that the American government imprisoned only the Japanese.

  1. Do you think there are safeguards in the current American system to prevent something similar to the Japanese American internment from occurring today?

No, I resonate that the American government has not put enough safeguards to prevent an occurrence similar to the Japanese American imprisonment (Daniels 56). In fact, President Trump has denied the movement of people from Arab countries to America.

  1. How would you compare the experience of Japanese Americans during WWII and Muslims/Arabs of America today in the War on Terrorism?

I would compare the experiences of the Japanese Americans during the Second World War to the experiences of Arabs in the war against terrorism. Currently, the American government discriminates against Arabs and denies them a chance to immigrate to the country.

  1. Compare and contrast the experiences of Asian/Pacific Islander immigrants in America.

Asian/Pacific Islander is a racial group in the United States. The United States government discriminated against the Asian and Pacific Islander immigrants. The Asians were a large groups and faced more intense segregation as compared to the Pacific Islander.

 

 

Works Cited

ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS

Media houses termed the James Monroe reign between 1815 and 1825 as the Era of Good Feelings. The political rivalry and difference in opinion between the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans subsided. Divisive debates over slavery, wars, tariffs, and the Second National Bank seemed to take a backseat. Unlike other chief executives in the past, President Monroe enjoyed immense popularity. However, this era collapsed in 1824 when four candidates participated in the presidential elections. Bad feelings culminated this period as politicians refused to compromise.

Factionalism within Jefferson’s party ended the Era of Good Feelings in the country.[1] The congressional caucus organized presidential nominations, which guaranteed participants an election. However, voters felt that that the system favored white males. So, when the caucus nominated William Crawford to run for the presidency, three other politicians showed interest in leading the nation. The voters witnessed the first contests between four candidates in the history of America.

Additionally, politicians felt that those in government used their position to further their interests. The pro-economic development regime supported the ventures of the elite. They ignored the will of the common people causing discontent among voters. In retaliation, various leaders came out to vie for the position of president[2]. Leaders, such as Jackson, wanted an inclusive government where all voters had a say. However, they failed to garner majority votes.

Moreover, the Era of Good Feelings ended when leaders refused to compromise. After the shaky James Madison administration, politicians from across the divide put aside their differences to support James Monroe run the nation. The previous government dealt with different problems including economic instability, protests, and the attack on Washington. Leaders did not want a repeat of the turmoil, thus, supported their president.

Finally, the Era of Good Feelings ended with bad feelings because of national division. The country was divided with one faction supporting Hamilton and the other backing Jefferson[3]. Over time, the animosity between these two camps intensified. As a result, each party sought for support from Congress, the legislature, and the executive. The Jeffersonians endorsed candidates for the different position including Congress and the presidency[4]. The Federalists followed suit by competing for the support of the mass electorate.

In conclusion, Americans wanted a peaceful government where all leaders put the interests of the people ahead of theirs. James Monroe granted their wishes. He formed an inclusive state. However, congressional caucus made it difficult for politicians to compromise. Those outside government felt that nominations were biased. Leaders refused to cooperate with a non-inclusive government.

[1] Tindall, George Brown, and David E. Shi. America: A narrative history. WW Norton & Company, 2016, 123

[2] Ibid, 23

[3] Tindall, George Brown, and David E. Shi. America: A narrative history. WW Norton & Company, 2016.

[4] Ibid, 34

 

Saudi Kids not speaking the Mother Language

To every parent or guardian, the birth of a child plays a critical role in the expansion of generations. In this case many take care of their children with the type of protection or mentorship which the youngster deserves. In the development stage, most children emulate the behavior of their parents. However, in some instances, young adults may emulate the conduct of the people who take care of them especially nannies. For example, a youngster can learn a particular language due to the influence of nannies even if it is not the mother language. Consequently, the parent serves as the first teacher to a child since he/she offers knowledge which cannot be taught in school. In this case, before the youngster joins a class, he/she will have gained a lot from the parent or guardian. Nevertheless, a lot of arguments have been generated questioning whether it is possible for children to learn a different language other than the mother tongue due to the influence of nannies.

In response to this particular argument, the focus goes to Saudi Arabian children who are raised by nannies and do not speak the mother language due to the influence of the caregivers. Consequently, these children speak English or Philippian English. Due to this, the youngsters’ behavior has been influenced greatly since there is diminished communication between them and the parents (Zafar, Mueen, Awedh, & Balubaid, 2014). If conversation is hindered, it becomes difficult for the children to describe what they want to their parents and this results to anger. Preference for the English language divides Arab parents. Although there are advantages and disadvantages of learning English as a second language, the rate at which Saudi’s children are learning the language has influenced their behavior. First, the youngsters are prone to suffer from erosion of culture (Unruh & Obeidat, 2015). Typically, it is evident that the mother tongue is vital in preserving cultures. In this case, adoption of English as the main language for the Saudi’s kids is prone divert their attention from Arabic at an early age. In this case, it becomes hard for them to learn the mother language once they have mastered English. The situation shows that the Saudi parents are to blame since they have allowed English speaking nannies to take care of their children.

Many Arabic parents believe that it is important to make children learn Arabic first and speak the language fluently in order for them to learn other languages easily. According to some, exposing them to English at an early stage only hampers their capability of learning English. When they are grown up, it will prove impossible to learn Arabic (Unruh & Obeidat, 2015). The parents whose children speak English instead of Arabic fail to understand that the diversity of language comprehension begins at an early stage. The language that comes first in a child’s life is what the youngster embraces. Therefore, there is presence of disagreements between parents and their children due erosion of culture brought about by preference of English instead of Arabic.

English comprehension at an early stage has caused a lot of problems to the Arabian community. As stated earlier, it is difficult for a child in Saudi to comprehend Arabic after being taught English from an early stage. The higher education committee for education policy in Saudi Arabia claims that the ultimate objective of education in the country is to assist students to comprehend Islam in a correct and all-inclusive manner (Zafar, Mueen, Awedh, & Balubaid, 2014). Moreover, the education aims at helping students to understand Islamic values, culture and teachings as well as equipping them with skills for spreading Islam (Ash, Rice, & Redmond, 2014). Therefore, a strong Islamic culture entails the ability to develop the society economically, socially, and culturally. Similarly, the education system prepares learners to make meaningful contribution to the welfare of the community. For that reason, it is evident that Saudi Arabia lays much emphasis on the cultural norms and values. The children that do not speak the mother language are regarded as foreign to the Islamic culture.

Consequently, personal discipline is another element that has been greatly influenced by adoption of English language at an early stage. Since most parents who follow strict Arabic rules do not understand English, there is a misunderstanding between them and their children (Al-Nasser, 2015). In this case, it becomes difficult for the guardians to instill discipline to the youngsters. Additionally, emulation of western culture contributes to lowered discipline levels. By accepting to speak English as their preferred and convenient mode of communication, the children also aspire to emulate English behavior. Typically, most western values are a taboo in the Islamic culture (Alrashidi & Phan, 2015). For instance, the mode of dressing by the western people defies Islamic culture and values. In this case, parents whose children learn English from an early stage continue to be in disagreements due to poor discipline.

Furthermore, failure to speak Arabic and opt English as the primary language has affected Saudi’s children’s behavior in relation to style and civilization. English is recognized globally as the primary mode of information sharing. By embracing English, the Saudi kids want to be associated with the world and can be ready to represent their country in other nations which do not speak Arabic (Al-Nofaie, 2016). While it is important to learn English since it is globally recognized as a mode of communication, people should not lose the identity of their culture. Mother tongue language should come first before one is mature enough to learn another language of choice (Al-Nofaie, 2016). Arabic parents have been furious since some of their children who are brought up by nannies learn English early in life to hinder their capability of comprehending Islam. In this case, there are cases of misunderstanding between parents and their children. The result of the misunderstanding is poor discipline.

Conclusively, the increased incidences of Saudi’s children speaking English instead of Arabic is a clear indication that the type of parenting offered to a youngster influences his/her conduct. In Saudi Arabia youngsters raised by nannies seem to understand the language used by the caregiver. If the nanny speaks English, there is a likelihood that the child will embrace English. Since many of the nannies come from other nations, the youngsters tend to adopt foreign behavior. The long term effect of these incidences is that youngsters have failed to honor the Arabic culture. Instead, they have embraced English as their primary mode of communication due to the type of upbringing granted unto them.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sudanese States and East and Southern Africa’s Kingdoms

Sudanese States and East and Southern Africa’s Kingdoms

The Sudanic empires of West Africa were a group of powerful states, which developed in the South of the Sahara desert. Songhai, Mali, and Ghana were the most prominent states. The Arabs referred to the Land south of the Sahara desert as the land of the blacks. The Sudanic empires had vast commercial networks and often traded gold and grains from the Sub-Saharan Africa for salt from the Sahara desert. Soninke people were the founders of Ghana as one of the Sudanic trading empire (Boahen 55). During the 800’s A.D, Ghana became one of the wealthy kingdoms. However, the empire declined while the Almoravids gained an influence over the trade routes in Sahara and other parts of Sudan. Although Ghana survived the 1200’s A.D, it failed to regain its former influence and control. The Sudanese States had notable differences with the Eastern and South Africa’s Kingdoms in the aspects of geographical location, history of the two regions, and slavery practices.

Firstly, the Sudanic empires were a group of influential states, which developed South of the Sahara desert in the 700s and 1500s (Boahen 71). The Western Sudan was located in the northern part of West Africa. Initially, the Western Sudan extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the basin of Lake Chad. The historians have recognized Western Sudan as a land of great empires. Western Sudan encompass a broad of Savannah extending from the Sahara desert to the tropical rain forest of Guinea Coast. The empires of the Western Sudan were unified through strong leadership and kin based societies.

On the contrary, the Great Zimbabwe was one of the kingdoms in South Africa. The kingdom is located between Zambezi and Limpopo rivers and east of the Kalahari Desert. In the 11th and 15th century, the Great Zimbabwe was a thriving business empire. The Great Zimbabwe was the successor of Mapungubwe, which was located in the central Limpopo valley. The Shona people of South Africa were the main residents of Mapungubwe. The Iron Age settlers were the first people in Mapungubwe and resided in the place between 1000 AD and 1300 AD.

Secondly, the Kingdoms of Eastern and South Africa had historic differences with the Sudanese states and empires. The Western Sudan was a historic region in the northern part of West Africa. Historians recognized Western Sudan as an area with great empires. Ghana is one of the widely recognized empire of the Western Sudan. Ghanaian government possessed sophisticated methods of taxation and well concealed gold mines. Although the King of the Soninke failed to embrace Islam, he fostered good relationships with Islamists to promote trade.

Mapungubwe was one of the first states in South Africa in 1220-1300. Besides, the region was a symbol of the artefacts found in the region. The Shona people of South Africa were the main residents of Mapungubwe area. Iron Age settlers were the first group of people in the region. The Mapungubwe people were wealthy and reared different kinds of animals such as cows, goats, and even dogs. They produced large volumes of food products for trade. The archaeologists discovered remain of millet and sorghum in their storage huts.

Thirdly, the two regions had different systems of slavery. Slavery in Sudan began in the ancient times and had a resurgence during the Second Sudanese Civil War. In Ghana, slavery was widely practiced as a result of increased demand of human labour. In fact, slaves were one of the commodities of trade.

Similarly, slaver trade was a common practice among the states of Eastern and Southern Africa. In South Africa, slave trade was a common practice before the arrival of the Europeans. The African slaves served as sailors. As a result of increased demand for ivory, the slaves were used as porters of the products.

In conclusion, the Sudanese empires of western African had historical differences with East and South Africa’s states and Kingdoms. However, the two regions had similarities in that they both practiced slavery. Ghana, being one of the Sudanic empires, had an extensive commercial network to conduct trade. Eventually, Ghana became one of the wealthiest nations in the 800s. On the contrary, Zimbabwe was one of the common kingdoms of Eastern and Southern Africa. Great Zimbabwe was the successor of Mapungubwe in trade.

 

 

Should People make Intelligent Robot

The case is about a robotic boy who is indistinguishable from others. He is designed in a way that allows him to experience human-like emotions implying that he needs caretakers. The boy is adopted by a couple who later abandons him. It becomes a complex case because the robot is a computer artifact that shares human attributes. The indication that this robot experiences emotions implies that it is conscious of people around it and especially, the actions that impact its well-being. Although it is a computer artifact, the robot can take part in conversations and social interactions. After being abandoned by the parents who adopted him, the robotic boy felt betrayed and neglected just like a normal human child would feel. Did his parents commit any wrong by abandoning him?

Central stakeholders in this case are people who designed and created the artificial boy, himself, and the couple who adopts him. Other stakeholders can include the society where the boy lives and the mediators of his sale. This case will focus on the manufacturer, the artificial boy, and his adopters.

The technical problem in this case is finding a caretaker for the artificial boy. Although the boy is a robot that can be dismantled, he is indistinguishable from other boys meaning that people who see him will assume he is alive. Additionally, he is designed with the capability to experience emotions. Emotions cause people to take actions that can either have a positive or negative impact on their society. If the artificial boy takes an inappropriate action, somebody needs to be accountable for his deeds. He needs to be taught to cope with emotions assuming that he has the ability to learn new behaviors from his experiences.

Although the artificial boy finds a couple to adopt him, his caretakers later abandon him. There is an ethical problem in the abandonment. For one, the boy’s actions are unpredictable. Because of the emotion void that is created after his parents abandon him, he is likely to harm those around himself. Secondly, the fact that this boy is capable of participating in life by processing what people say and contributing to their discussions makes him ‘alive’ to some extent. Some would, therefore, argue that abandoning him is equivalent to neglecting any other child.

The existence of the boy as a computer artifact is one of the perspectives that can be used to argue the case. He has been designed by humans and runs on software which, makes him a computer artifact regardless of his human attributes. If he becomes unbearable to his caretakers and the society at large, the best thing would be, to dispose him properly by dismantling. Moral responsibility is another factor that can be used to argue the case. The couple who adopted the boy is answerable for his behavior. According to ethics, people who buy a computer artifact should be responsible for its use. The adopters should therefore, explore better ways of solving the problem instead of abandoning him. If the social technical systems paradigm is used to assess the case, the manufacturers are the ones to blame. The manufacturers should have foreseen the complexity of interacting with a robot that has emotional feelings and avoid building it to uphold ethical standards.

The first rule states that people who design a computer artifact are morally responsible for its foreseeable effects. Additionally, those who use it as part of a socialtechnical system are to blame for the effects of the artifact. Using this rule, both the designers and the adopters of the robot are to blame for the crisis. The designers can solve the problem by recalling the robot and dismantling it completely or taking away the part that gives it emotional responsiveness. Its adopters need to devise strategies that will ensure the boy does not disturb them and the adjacent society. They could need to see the manufacturer for necessary modifications. The second rule states that everybody who is involved in designing and deploying a computer artifact is responsible for its outcome. The responsibility of solving the problem should therefore be shared by all stakeholders. They need to collaborate and agree on a solution instead of blaming each other. The third rule states that people who use a computer artifact are morally responsible for that particular use. The parents therefore take a heavier blame for abandoning their robotic boy. Before adopting him, they should have learned about his behaviors and capabilities first to reassure themselves that they can live with him comfortably.

The solutions given for the technical and ethical problems in this case can stand criticism for various reason. The first solution where the adopters are recommended to return the artificial boy to his creators for dismantling is the most feasible of all approaches. It could be argued that even humans need to die at some point in their lives and especially, when it becomes difficult for society to bear with them. As long as the artificial boy is allowed to continue existing, he will create more problems because his ability to process emotion makes him unpredictable. His creators can decide on whether to dismantle him completely or to modify his design so that he can no longer ‘feel’.

I would recommend the manufacturers of robots to avoid making creations that have unpredictable behavior. All computer artifacts should have foreseeable outcomes so that it is easy to solve problems. If creating an unpredictable artifact is inevitable, the manufacturer needs to have a contingency plan that outlines the process of disposing artifact. I would consider it unethical to create a robot that process emotions and interact with the conventional society.