The Happiness of Pursuit


Question One

The authors utilize various research methods at investigating the happiness pursuit. One of these used approaches includes a literature review. In this type of research design, investigators collect data from the existing literature on the concerned issue. In so doing, the investigator can determine the findings of the previous researchers and examine research gaps. For instance, the authors rely on Morelli and Liberman’s study, which found that people operating at cognitive load have low empathy reactions, with neural activity down across four different brain regions. Although researchers widely acknowledge literature review as one of the best methods to conduct a study, they highlight both its benefits and setbacks.

One of the benefits of literature review design is that it allows investigators to assess the current state of a topic. Secondly, it can assist a researcher to evaluate the position of experts on specific issues. Thirdly, literature review methods ensure researchers determine study methods that previous investigators utilized. Nevertheless, sole dependence on these methods limits investigators to problems that previous researchers have examined. Secondly, the use of outdated literature could mislead investigators. Secondly, the authors have used surveys in their study. The writers have further referred to different survey findings and questionnaires. Additionally, the authors conducted surveys to determine whether or not people improve their level of happiness after spending time with friends on social media.

The use of surveys in research studies is beneficial to investigators in various ways. Firstly, the approach is free from various types of errors and bias. Secondly, they are cost-effective and easy for researchers to administer. Investigators can mitigate or avoid geographical dependence through the use of surveys. However, experts relate the approach with different flaws, including potential bias when the respondents are unwilling to participate and reduced reliability when respondents lack awareness on some responses. Thirdly, the authors utilize correlational studies to investigate their research question. In this study design, scholars seek to determine the views of different groups of people on a particular matter. For example, the study uses this approach to assess the effects of social media use between republicans and democrats.

One of the benefits of this design is that it helps researchers to reveal particular relationships between different groups. Secondly, it provides an opportunity to researchers to determine areas that need efforts. Moreover, it offers some of the best results to those investigating a particular phenomenon. However, the approach does not provide information on causes of existing relationship. For example, the authors cannot explain why Democrats’ experiences on social media are better than that of Republicans.

Question Two

From the various charts and graphical representations, the audience can make different conclusions on matters related to optimism and pessimism. One of the conclusion is that in 2004, people were more likely than 2013 to cope up with frustrations in life. The study presents responses of people on the prompt “Do you consider yourself an optimist or a pessimist? According to the author’s report, it is evident that the number of pessimists and optimists decreased dramatically in 2004 and 2013. On the contrary, the number of people who are in between optimism and pessimism increased with a big margin. Since pessimists often expect worse results in their various endeavors, they are more likely than optimists to adapt to an environment that is shifting from desirable to undesirable experiences.

Consequently, a reduction in the number of pessimists and optimists implies that a high number of people will be unable to cope up with challenges of the dynamic society. Secondly, a reader can conclude that social media profiles could be used to recognize users’ behaviors and personalities. The study represents survey results on the question “Do you believe your social media profile represents what you are?” The author describes survey results in the diagram below. According to the results, it is clear that most people believe that social-media profiles reflect users’ personalities.

Fig 1.1: shows survey results on people’s view of social media (Gibson and Kharunya part 2)

Thirdly, readers can conclude that people consider some types of activities as means to improve their moods. According to the researcher, prayers have become essential determinants of mood. While most people ate food to adjust their attitudes in 2004, most of the people in 2013 were mediating to intervene about their moods.

Question Three

Lieberman and Morelli set out to investigate people’s reaction when they are looking at other people’s sad or happy images. The researchers set up an experiment in which the participants were supposed to look at good and sad photos. To distract the participants focus on the images, they assigned each of them with eight digits number to memorize. They found reduced empathies in people who were distracted by the number.

On the contrary, volunteers with unrefined brains processed the images quicker than other participants. The authors highlight different psychological and physiological processes that influence emotional reactions. Firstly, they investigated the influence of memory processes expressing empathy. Secondly, cognitive processes affect people’s compassion towards others. Physiologically, distractions prevent people from showing empathy, as they interfere with psychological processes. For this reason, it is apparent that an individual who is engaged in other cognitive tasks cannot express deep sympathy during sad times.

According to Lieberman and Morelli, both physiological and psychological functions have significant implications for empathetic responses. The experiment revealed that although brain processes disturb the level of an individual’s empathic response, other factors may interfere with these operations. From another dimension, both physiological and psychological factors upset persons’ emotional responses but at varying levels. Different parts of the brain may be required to collaborate in performing a particular task. Subsequently, the numbers of mental processes taking place in human’s brain could affect the effectiveness of people’s emotional reactions. The author has utilized these views to support arguments on happiness.

Question Four

Readers should acknowledge Morelli’s quote as it has critical civic implications. Civic engagement relates to individuals’ ability to participate in civic actions including community services and initiatives in order to improve the public sphere. The quote illustrates the author’s understanding of the empathy that is an essential human emotion affecting their conduct in the society. In his quote, the author underscores the importance of focus in promoting civic engagements.

People who lack focus on public concerns may fail to respond per expectations of others. Any type of physiological response makes it difficult for people to meet civic engagement goals. Such a situation occurs due to people’s inability to illustrate empathy when necessary. When in public or with people, it is essential to concentrate on the matter of interests to avoid distractions. In fact, the quote suggests that physiological process can hurt the quality of the responses triggered by psychological processes. More importantly, mitigating disturbances when addressing public concerns can improve the level of happiness in people.

It is important to note the significance of empathy in political situations. When there are tensions within a state, leaders should express compassion and empathy to the affected families. Failure to communicate this emotion could have an adverse impact particularly for a politician, who wants to remain in the political scene for long. Besides, the empathy could determine the nature of public relations that an organization seeks to sustain or build. For this reason, it is apparent that appropriate emotional responses in matters of public concerns are fundamental to good leadership.

The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter


The f-35 joint strike fighter program is the U.S largest defense plan with substantial costs on the taxpayer. The U.S. leads the program with assistance from the U.K., Denmark, Turkey, Italy, Canada, Netherlands, and Australia. The program promises to manufacture three variants of F-35 fighter crafts for the marine, air force, and navy. The new aircraft will have significant advancements in military abilities. Similar to other high tech programs, the developers have surpassed the original budget, and they have put the plan behind schedule with more than seven years. Developers have put measures to ensure that the craft is “stealthy” or “low-observable” (Charette 4). Such a characteristic ensures enemies do not detect the aircraft, making it difficult for enemies to attack during wars.

The Development Model for the F-35

The F-35 fighter is supposed to surpass the abilities of any other fighter craft in the world so that it provides the U.S. with immunity from potential attacks. To equip the plane with all the properties that the client has requested, the responsible developers should have a model to guide them through the development procedure. A reliable model should describe the complete process from product development to consumption and feedback from the consumers. Engineers should develop the model in a way that reflects an improvement on the already existing fighters. The process of inventing a development model for F35 comprises of the following steps:

The first stage is to perform an opportunity scan. At this stage, Lockheed Martin should focus on checking improvement opportunities for the previous fighters. At this stage, the manufacturer needs to investigate with regard the abilities of potential F-35 competitors, particularly the Russia’s T-50 and China’s J-31 stealth fighters. It should be more effective than its potential adversaries in terms of maneuverability, air-air lethality, and its overall performance in all terrains. Moreover, the product should have adequate stealth capabilities to succeed at its war missions. To have these abilities, the product will have sophisticated information systems that would allow the operators to observe the environment and detect threats.

The ability of the craft to remain undetected provides soldiers with an opportunity for “first look, first shot, and first kill” (Charette 6). Besides, the F-35 variants should be customized according to expected fighting environments. The F-35 option for the Navy will have the abilities to take off on short distances and land vertically. Therefore, it should have nozzles that protrude to the wings and fans behind the cockpit. Regarding the engine design, the fighter will provide interchangeable engine option to boost its performance levels.

The second stage would be concept testing. The manufacturer should provide the customers with a detailed description of the product so that they contribute their views and assess their attitudes on the same. Lockheed Martin needs to communicate the benefits and attributes of F-35 for the consumer to determine its relevance and ability to serve the intended purposes. The builders should compare the F-35 concept to its potential rivals do decide whether or not the product has leverage over competitors.

Prototype Development, Test, and Launch

In the prototype development stage, Lockheed Martin should focus on preparing F35 in a way that demonstrates the ability of the craft resolving the client’s problem. The project leaders should examine and proof product concepts, which should be relayed to the development team, managers, and sponsors. The development team should actualize the product concepts per the client requests. Upon development, both the project team and the consumer should test the prototype abilities to perform according to the manufacturer’s promises. If the builders adhere to the proposed model, the Pentagon as the program sponsor should prefer F-35 to other fighters due to its benefits. If the product is free from operational flaws, the maker should organize a launching date.


On its development cycle, the project team seeks to equip F-35 with unprecedented stealth mode capabilities. Consequently, the fighter will have approximately 8, 000, 000 lines of software codes. The feature allow the plane to perform five times better than the top 5 word’s fifth-generation fighters. However, the complex information system comes at a cost. The avionics system on the craft’s system may present particular development risks, as the developers have not used such a complex system before.

Proposal #1: The Company should not launch the craft before the builders become acquainted with large-scale implementation of avionics system in the plane. Effectiveness in installing the system could be accomplished after the manufacturer successfully deploys a high number of these systems correctly.

Proposal #2: The Company should work together with the builders of F35 predecessors in resolving the software issues. The F22 development team encountered significant software issues with the same avionics system. Lockheed Martins should share experiences with F-22 developers to address the problems within an acceptable period.

Proposal #3: Lockheed Martins should form a team of professionals in all the manufacturing sites to allow bug fixes to the software. The team should continue on the tasks post-delivery to improve reliability by eliminating potential instances of software failure.

The F-35 joint strike fighter development will have significant cost on taxpayers. Despite the functional and budgetary challenges that Lockheed Martins has faced, the program should proceed because the product would allow the U.S. to maintain its control over the world as the superpower. The U.S. should focus on matters of self-defense, as it is necessary to protect its citizens from potential cases of attacks. Thus, the U.S. may spend billions of money on the development of such weapons systems.


Organizational Behavior


Every agency has a manager who presides over decisions to enhance its performance. Some of the significant management roles include planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. On planning, managers define organizational goals, determine appropriate corporate strategies, and develop plans to coordinate activities. Besides, they monitor employee activities to guarantee that an organization accomplishes its mission within a reasonable time frame (Latham & Erez, 2016). Due to the influence of employees in determining organizational success, managers perceive leadership as one of the most critical roles in an agency. They have the responsibilities to monitor, motivate, and direct employees. Subsequently, leaders should have a good understanding of organizational behavior to optimize workforce reliability.

In this context, an organization refers to a team of people working together to accomplish common goals. To achieve these goals, an agency requires employee inputs either at the individual level or as a group. Organizational behavior refers to the systematic study and application of knowledge concerning how people act within corporate settings (Robbins & Judge, 2013). Although organizational behavior mostly refers to an individual’s behavior in the workplace, the topic should include the conduct of individual employees without necessarily involving the organization itself. Equally, a person may study an organization itself without involving the influence of the workers. Nevertheless, an individual should examine both pieces of the issue to understand the whole.

Fig 1.1. The figure illustrates factors that influence human behavior in organiations (Latham & Erez, 2016).

It is essential to understand that a member of an organization does not work without influence, as the environment surrounding the structure may affect his/her performance. Every member of a team has unique characteristics, which the organization leaders must consider when assigning team roles (Latham & Erez, 2016). Due to the complexities involved in organizational behavior management, experts have come up with theories to help managers in maneuvering challenges that emerge in the field. Some of the approaches towards organizational behavior include the following:

Human Resources Approach

Human resources deal with the employment and development of an individual members regarding creativity and competency. Personnel in charge of human resources must address these issues because employees play a crucial role in organizational success. The approach is critical to assist employees in developing to responsible members of an organization. For example, a human resource manager should develop a training program to optimize the relevance of employees in an organization (Robbins & Judge, 2013). Besides, a training program allows employees to create a climate that encourages and motivates them to work. At times, people refer human resources approach as a supportive strategy because a manager changes his/her role from controlling employees to enhancing the quality of their professional lives.

Contingency Strategy

A contingency approach relates the idea that every situation requires different behavioral practices for an organization to address presenting concerns. For this reason, a human resources manager should invent new ways of resolving organizational problems rather than depend on traditional models. Nevertheless, a manager should examine every problem keenly to assess the potential of the planned measures in improving the situation. The benefit of contingency approach is that that it provides managers with adequate time to investigate a case before implementing a decision. Besides, managers who consider contingency approaches often exploit current information about the concerned field before planning for potential problem remedies. In so doing, they improve organizations’ opportunity to run their tasks smoothly.

Productivity Approach

Regarding productivity approach, human resource managers tend to compare investments that an organization makes on employees with their benefits to the organization. Mostly, human resource managers measure both the input and output of an individual in terms of financial resources (Miner, 2015). An employee becomes useful to a team whenever his/her output increases despite a constant input value. Managers utilize motivational theories to boost employee productivity and efficiency.

Systems Approach

In this case, managers perceive a system as an interrelated part of an agency that links all entities of interest to the organization. Besides, these parties must act as a whole to fulfil the mission of the concerned society (Wagner III & Hollenbeck, 2014). An organization’s structure provides for the coordination of various tasks that are vital to expansion of every organization. Moreover, the system perspective of organizational behavior focuses on the interactions within a firm and the broader environments that may include economic, cultural, social, and political context, in which a company operates. Importantly, organizations depend on their environments as sources of human labor, money, and raw materials.

Emerging Trends in Organizational Behavior

Customized Employee Experience

The dynamism of work environments require organizational managers to lay down measures necessary to cater to the new environmental demands. One of the emerging trends relates to customizing employee experiences at the workplace. Organizations are encouraging policies that aim to treat employees according to their preferred lifestyle and ambitions (Luthans F., Luthans, B, & Luthans, K, 2015). Subsequently, lifestyle recognition, self-expression, and ethics have gained priority over employee pay and promotion. For this reason, every human resource manager should acknowledge the key drivers of employee engagement to survive in respective industries.

Shift in the Perception of Future Workforce

Presently, work environments are changing as a result of changes in technological advancements, demographics, and economics. The future workforce will be highly diverse, and employees would stay longer in their professions (Miner, 2015). Experts in the field anticipate a multicultural workforce in future agencies due to increasing demographic diversity. Improved economies have resulted in shifts towards service jobs while some organizations have become highly flexible due to the emerging technologies that allow employees to work remotely. These changes present both opportunities and challenges in organizational behavior management.


Work ethics is one of the trends shaping organizational behavior. Most of the organizations have adopted a code of ethics for both the employees and administration officials. Codes of ethics determine how employees should conduct themselves in different work situations. The movement has critical implications for organizational leaders. They should have abilities to distinguish ethical from unethical conducts (Latham & Erez, 2016). Organizations that portray ethical behavior in the workplace may have a competitive leverage over firms with poorly implemented code of ethics. Other trends concern the globalization strategies, employee engagement, and the role of information technology in organizational behavior.

Organizational behavior is one of the vital concepts that focus on employee behavior within an organization. Human resource managers should have a good understanding of organizational behavior so that they align employees with organizational goals. They should create a conducive work environment to allow the development of employee at a professional level. Notably, managers should keep updated on the trends that shape employee behavior and performance. Information about employee needs would be beneficial to organizations with intentions to build employee loyalty.


Reading Response on Poverty

Reading Response on Poverty

Poor people in America do not stand a chance in the current economic setup in the country. Legislators pass laws and regulations that worsen the problem. The housing policies that legislators passed have pushed low income families into neighborhoods with low performing schools and colleges. Additionally, the wages of poor people have stagnated in the face of rising inflation. Children from poor communities are not prepared to face the world from affluent families. The only way of ending poverty in the country is increasing employee wages and providing financial support to single mothers. However, the government has ignored pleas by the poor. Therefore, the only way of forcing the government to act on these changes is organizing civic movements in the country.

To begin with, a civil rights movement for the poor would force the government to enact favorable laws. An active civil rights movement would force legislators to introduce policies that ensure an increment in the wages of poor workers. According to Edelman, “wages for those who work on jobs in the bottom half have been stuck since 1973” (2). People with low paying jobs cannot take their children to the best schools in the country. Moreover, they cannot access quality healthcare the same way like the rich. Edelman reveals that “there’s been growth, a lot of it, but it has stuck at the top” (6). Civil rights groups can use their influence to ensure that this money trickles down to the people on the ground.

Additionally, civil rights movements could call for the creation of a Fair Housing Act that could limit exclusionary practices by municipalities. These practices make it difficult for poor people to live in communities with better social amenities. Such movements can force the government to allow developer build apartments for both the poor and the wealthy. Such a move would ensure that low income families have access to quality education and healthcare services.

Moreover, civil rights groups can ensure that the government creates a safety net for poor single mothers in the country. In the past, through lobbying by civil rights groups, the government introduced the welfare program. It enhanced the income for single mothers and their children. Today, these groups of people do not receive support. In states where the program is in operation, “many states actually reduced the size of their rolls and lowered benefits to those in greatest need”(5).

Finally, economic segregation of schools in poor neighborhoods hinders their efforts to provide quality education. These schools deserve adequate funding from the government to carry out its activities smoothly. They need to build classrooms, purchase books, and hire teachers. Civil rights movements can force the government to introduce magnet theme schools in these neighborhoods. Additionally, these movements can lobby for the sponsorship of children from low income families to tertiary institutions.

Poverty is like the sun and every time a person hope for a better future, he or she loses it to a poverty equation. Employees report to their places of work on a daily basis and put more effort to earn more from morning to the evening. At the end of the month, their salaries only settles debts and bills. What remains cannot cater for their basic needs. In fact, they do not have much to deposit in a savings account. In the morning, they wake up and repeat the same routine.


Analysis of Unintended Pregnancy and Abortion

Unwanted teenage pregnancies and cases of abortion have significantly increased over the recent past. Parents and guardians can take various measures to reduce the numerous risks that young girls encounter while trying to terminate their early pregnancies. The research process was qualitative because the essay mainly contains more reasons and few numerical statistics.

In the research of teenage pregnancies, the authors of the sources wrote related information in that they provided solutions to the growing incidences of abortions. Despite the fact that the two sources are from contrasting authors, the information in both articles are similar. For example, Secura et al. wrote one of the two sources while the other is from a US based academic organization comprised of professionals in the field of gynecology. As a result, the essay contains valid information regarding unintended pregnancies and abortion from different types of sources.

The essay relies on information from the sources to provide readers with an insight of the health hazards associated with abortions among young girls. Additionally, the work enlightens the audience about the various stakeholders who should act by improving the health of young girls who find themselves in the difficult situations. The authors of the sources wrote information in an argumentative style, which aim at advocating against abortions. Additionally, the ideas presented highlight the need for parents, guardians, teachers, and health workers to educate adolescents about the importance of contraceptives. The aim of the essay is to discourage the use of any contraceptive among the young people. Another purpose is to enlighten the readers about the benefits of sex education to growing teenagers. Most young girls who become pregnant lack useful information. Parents and guardians are mostly responsible to educate their teenage sons and daughters regarding the risks of unwanted pregnancies. Therefore, the task of responsibility is not only among the teenagers, but also the parents.

As the author, I used various rhetorical strategies to highlight the major points and make them more convincing. Firstly, the selection of the topic is to make a stand as the author. It is important to state in the opening paragraph that unwanted pregnancies may distort the future plans of teenage girls. Besides, they undergo multiple dangers when they opt for abortion. As the author, one strategy I used in the essay is to provide relevant information to the appropriate audience. Parents and teachers who fail to provide sex education to teenagers usually subject the youngsters to experimentation and unprotected sex that may lead to unwanted pregnancies. The essay aims at educating the audience, parents and caregivers, about the dangers of sexual relations and abortions. Additionally, it provides awareness on the measures that the stakeholders can take to protect young girls.

The strategies are crucial since they give the reader a clear understanding of the topic and practical ways of applying them. An author who writes a persuasive essay should explain the points clearly so that the audience can fully understand his or her thoughts. Additionally, the writer should provide a number of facts and figures as is the case with the essay, which gives readers a clearer image of the degree in which the research phenomenon is affected. Additionally, it creates a sense of professionalism and makes the essay appear factual.

Impression of the Video


  1. What was your impression of the video A Family Gathering?

In my opinion, American Experience: A family Gathering is wonderful documentary based on three generations of a Japanese American family (Yasui 3: 13). After the Yasui family settles in Oregon, the neighbors recognize them as respectable figures in the community. However, they were later sent to internment camps after the community members deemed that they were potentially dangerous aliens.

  1. Do you think Lise Yasui effectively interweaves personal family history with the broader history of the Japanese American internment in her film?

Yes, I deem that Lise Yasui interweaves the history of the family with the internment of Japanese American. The director further explores the imprisonment of the family members in the internment camps during the Second World War (Yasui 2: 14). Similarly, the United States government forced the Japanese Americans to evacuate their homes and seek for refuge in the internment camps.

  1. In what specific ways do you think the internment violated the rights of Japanese Americans during WWII?

The United States government violated the rights of the Japanese Americans in various ways. For instance, the internment resulted in racial segregation against the Japanese Americans. Additionally, the American government denied the Japanese Americans the freedom of speech (Nishihara 44). In fact, English was the sole language for use during meetings, while the government prohibited the use of Japanese language. Furthermore, the Japanese Americans lacked a legal representative and, thus, could not access a fair trial as compared to the Americans.

  1. Why were some Japanese Americans in Oregon given the option to relocate to Eastern Oregon instead of being imprisoned internment camps?

During the Second World War, the American government gave a half of the Japanese Americans an option to relocate to Eastern Oregon to avoid overcrowding in the internment camps.

  1. Were you surprised to find out that two-thirds of the people of Japanese descent sent to internment camps were American citizens?

Yes, I was surprised to realize that two thirds of the people living in the internment camps were American because I thought that the American government imprisoned only the Japanese.

  1. Do you think there are safeguards in the current American system to prevent something similar to the Japanese American internment from occurring today?

No, I resonate that the American government has not put enough safeguards to prevent an occurrence similar to the Japanese American imprisonment (Daniels 56). In fact, President Trump has denied the movement of people from Arab countries to America.

  1. How would you compare the experience of Japanese Americans during WWII and Muslims/Arabs of America today in the War on Terrorism?

I would compare the experiences of the Japanese Americans during the Second World War to the experiences of Arabs in the war against terrorism. Currently, the American government discriminates against Arabs and denies them a chance to immigrate to the country.

  1. Compare and contrast the experiences of Asian/Pacific Islander immigrants in America.

Asian/Pacific Islander is a racial group in the United States. The United States government discriminated against the Asian and Pacific Islander immigrants. The Asians were a large groups and faced more intense segregation as compared to the Pacific Islander.



Works Cited